letter and sound relationship




WGU Task Objective Number:

Lesson Title & Subject(s): letter and sound relationship

Duration of the lesson: 40 minutes

Topic or Unit of Study: phonics studies

Grade/Level: 1st grade




Instructional Setting:

The pupils will be seated in groups of five. This will be achieved by setting the tables in different places in the class so that the seat in circles. They will then repeat in unison the name and the picture as I say it. I will introduce the sound and the name in the picture as introduced in the reading program (Borowsky, 2007). The students are of the ages between 6 and eight years and there are twenty-five pupils. Most of the students are above average and are excited about learning the new letters and their sounds. The pictures and the group discussions make them very excited too.



Your State Core Curriculum/Student Achievement Standard(s):

 This lesson is to ensure that the pupil is in a position to identify a sound of the first letter with a figure or picture whenever he or she sees it. For example, “A” is for Apple

Lesson Objective(s):

This lesson is to enable the pupil to relate the beginning of each picture with the sound with one hundred percent accuracy. The picture that he should familiarize with is drawn on the chart.           


Instructional Materials:

  The materials include flipping for phonics, small group and one copy.


Bloom’s taxonomy activity two (Dreher, 2000)



  • Identification of Student Prerequisite Skills Needed for Lesson: (10 minutes)

The first thing is to make sure the students can hear what I am saying by telling them for example, the sound for the “A”  is “a” let me hear you say “a”  (McGuinness, 2004).

  • Presentation of New Information or Modelling: (5 minutes)

I will let the pupils show me any objects in the classroom represented by the letters. For example, “C” represents “chair” then I will want them to tell me the sound of the first letter.

  • Guided Practice: (5 minutes)

The guided practice will include attending to the pupils to see if they understood whatever I was teaching while they were in groups.

  • Independent Student Practice: (10 minutes)

By giving each pupil an object that is represented by a letter then letting them tell me whatever letter represent what they are having. For example ball is represented by the sound is “b.”

  • Culminating or Closing Procedure/Activity/Event: (10 minutes)

Giving the pupils the task of writing down the letters and what picture they represent. This task will only be completed after I have made sure that each pupil has the right handwriting for the letters.


Pedagogical Strategy (or Strategies):

The strategies will include cooperate learning and direct instruction. After directing the whole class, I will allow an individual pupil to point at something then let the others say what it is. Then, the pupils sitting in pairs, one will be point at something and the other will respond to the sound of the letter it represents.

Differentiated Instruction:

The same plan can be applicable to the pupils physically challenged such as the blind and the deaf. For the blind, one can use the sense of touch more. Like one can give the pupil a ball first then tell him the sound of the letter it represents. Then after sometime give the pupil the same ball and ask him what letter represent it. On the other hand, for the deaf you can show them the picture and ask them what letter represents it. However, this can only work if one has the knowledge of the sign language.


Student Assessment/Rubrics:

After the whole lesson, I will ask the pupils to tell me the beginning sound of each picture on the chart that I will be pointing and at the same time asking each student one by one. The response that I will require is not the letter name but the sound it that it represents. Nevertheless, I will take notes of the students who will not be able to tell me the correct thing that I need.


  • Observation and Description

The teaching of the pupils was fan and exciting, and most of the pupils were determined to show their fellow students and me that they had really learned how to pronounce the sound of the first letters represented by the pictures. In addition, I found out that others had already composed songs that reminded them of the lesson.

My only recommendation is that we should see to it that when it is a question of grouping the pupils, we should do it in a manner that the week students are intermingled with the fast leaning pupils so that the slow ones can catch up with the others. That is to say that in a group of five, three should be first and the other two should be fast.

  • Analysis, Exploration, and Reasoning

For one to be able to achieve the best results during presentation it necessary to come up with a set of rules that are very strict to the pupils. As for my part, the first rule that I must come up with is total participation by each pupil. In this rule, I will put it as 100 percent participation. By letting the whole class participate, one will be able to know the fast pupils and the pupils that may require special attention.

The second rule is 100 percent concentration. The rule must insist that all the pupils should concentrate on the activity that is taking place in the classroom. There should be no noise or other discussion during the lesson.

By setting the rules, the pupils will teach themselves to always concentrate and participate in class. This will also help them in their conduct and behaviour in the future.


  • Connections to Other Effective Teaching Practices

The groups should be established in a criterion that will not favour the fast learners and do damage to the slow learners. That is to say that when grouping the pupils the groups should be combined with both the fast learners and the slow learners. This will enable the other children to concentrate and they will not feel that they are being neglected because they are stupid or slow in class. When it is a question of grouping, one should ensure that the group is small and manageable this is because if the group is big, there will be some members in the group that will be dormant. Therefore, a small group gives everybody room for participation in the group.

The other teaching practices such as numbers and technical skills such as modelling can be applicable. The teachers will realize that the students are concentrating fully and nobody wants to be seen as the one who does not know. It is necessary to have a small group that can be managed easily.


  • Evaluation

By having everybody participating in class during presentation, this will make it easy to know the weak students that require special attention. On the other hand, one will be able to understand the strength and the weakness of each pupil.

The most challenging thing was, understanding   pupil. Therefore, I had to take time with them and know the ones that were shy and other needed to be motivated, but overall, knowing the pupils personally really encouraged me. It enabled me learn to be more patient with those that seem to be slow learners. It also made me realise that using more visual objects helps the students understand and remember things (letters) than just saying them.


  • Recommendations

The approach that I would have taken if I had enough time would have been to sit down with each pupil and teach him or her personally, without the other pupils interfering. I would also recommend that the entire class lesson be based on small grouping since it would be easier for the teachers to evaluate the progress of the pupils.

My recommendation of small grouping is relevant in teaching these pupils. This is to help the weaker pupils feel wanted and make it easier for them to understand the class work at a faster pace. More materials such as pictures, drawings and modelling materials will be included in order to prevent the students from fighting while others miss on the opportunity to use them.

I will also see to it that in each group, each pupil gets a role to play in order to increase the pupils’ concentration and participation. These roles include the leader, spokesperson and the secretary. The remaining pupils in the groups should also have something to do. The pupils grouping can be done according to the age so that the ones who seem older group with the younger ones. This would encourage them to stay harmoniously and encourage one another instead of bullying one another.


  • Personal Meaning and Professional Growth

As time progresses, one will notice that the weaker students are catching up as these pupils catch up, it would be necessary if one decides to regroup them again. This may be another way of motivating them. Therefore, it is necessary to know and evaluate the pupils’ progress, as this will motivate the pupils hence they will even work harder. On the other hand, the stronger pupils will also want to be a head of the other pupils since they will want competition with the other pupils.

The first thing that I will always consider whenever I am in a professional field is to help the pupils so that they can learn. This can only happen if the pupils are given a better learning environment. That is why I will always ensure that whenever I go to teach in a class, all the necessary learning materials and equipment will be available (DeSena, 2007).

It is always good to always consider yourself as a professional, that is why I always want to have whatever is required so that whenever anything goes wrong, there will be nobody to blame but me. That is the reason why I will always want to see my pupils at the same level.



















Borowsky, R. (2007). Neural representations of visual words and objects: a functional MRI study on the modularity of reading and object processing. Brain Topogr 20 (2): 89–96. doi:10.1007/s10548-007-0034-1. PMID 17929158

DeSena, L.  (2007). Preventing Plagiarism: Tips and Techniques. (Chapter 2). Urbana, IL:  NCTE

Dreher, J. (2000). Easy Steps to Writing Fantastic Research Reports (Grades 3-6). New York, NY: Scholastic Professional Books.

McGuinness, D. (2004). Early reading instruction: what science really tells up about how to teach reading. Cambridge, Mass: MIT Press.


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