PHL 251 Entire Course Critical Thinking


Nature of Thought Paper

Write a 700- to 1,050-word paper in which you explain the nature of thought.

Outline your own perceptual process and describe the types of perceptual blocks that influence your views.

Explain thought processes and how they are changed or manipulated by perception.

Include the following in your paper:

·  Describe thinking.

o  Explain sensing process.

o  Define memory.

o  Describe the medium.

·  Identify an instance in your life in which your perception of the real situation was far from the actual facts.

·  Outline your own perceptual process.

o  What did you think was going on?

o  What was really going on?

o  Why was there such a difference?

o  How did language empower or limit the expression of your thoughts?

o  What did you learn about your thinking by evaluating the situation again?

·  Describe the types of perceptual blocks that influence your views.

o  Identify personal barriers.

o  Describe thoughts.

o  Illustrate an example of thought being influenced by barriers.

·  Explain how thought is changed or manipulated by personal barriers.

Format your paper consistent with APA guidelines.


Creative Thinking

Resources: Creative Thinking and Natural/Mental Orders Worksheet, found on your student website; Activity 7.1, located in Ch. 7 of Thinking, for examples on how to create metaphors; and Ch. 8 of Thinking


Construct as many metaphors as you can about five different things that describe any aspect of your life, such as someone you know, something you do, someplace you have been, or anything else. Include a minimum of four metaphors for each person, subject, or object.


Organize one set of information using natural ordering and a different set of information using mental orders in the second portion of the worksheet.


Format this assignment using the worksheet template.


Logical Thinking Worksheet

Resources: Logical Thinking Worksheet, located on the student website; and Ch. 9 of Thinking

Explain what logical argument is and what it contains.

Describe the form, explain the purpose, and explain how the arguments listed are used:


·  Syllogisms

·  Deductive arguments

·  Inductive arguments


Construct a logical argument.


·  Construct a syllogism.

·  Create a deductive argument.

·  Create an inductive argument.


Evaluate the provided example of a logical argument.


·  What type of argument is it?

·  Is the argument sound?


Format according to the worksheet style.


Applying Problem Solving

Resources: Ch. 10–12 of the text, personal experiences


Choose two different real-world problems you have encountered. The problems should be chosen with the intention of applying persuasive thinking as a solution to one and scientific thinking as a solution to the other.


Write a 700- to 1,050-word paper in which you provide the following:


·  A description of each of the problem situations

·  An explanation of using persuasive thinking to solve the first problem

·  An explanation of using scientific thinking to solve the second problem


Summarize the solutions to each problem with a description of how the solution will solve the problem.


Format your paper consistent with APA guidelines.

Learning Team

Evaluate Creative Thinking

Resources: Individual assignments from Week Two and Ch. 13 of Thinking

Write a 350-word paper in which you evaluate your team member’s metaphors according to the criteria listed below.


·  Refer to the questions in Ch. 13: “Testing Against our Thinking Bases,” in order to understand these terms and complete this assignment.


o  Perception

o  Personal Barriers

o  Language

o  Feelings

o  Creative Thinking


Summarize the team’s summaries and compile them into one cohesive paper.

Format your paper consistent with APA guidelines.

Learning Team

Problem Solving and Action Presentation

Resources: Ch. 4, 5, 10, 13, 14, & 15 of Thinking; Ch. 10 of Critical Thinking; and the Problem Solving and Action Example located on the student website


Prepare a 10- to 15-slide PowerPoint® presentation with speaker notes according to the following criteria:


·  A description of the problem situation

·  A problem-solving technique


o  Identification of the technique

o  Explanation of why the chosen technique works best for the problem


·  Offer a solution to the problem.

·  Reconstruct the decision-making process you used to come up with the solution.


o  What criteria were used to make the decision?

o  Is decision emotional, logical, or both? Explain your answer.

o  Identify the factors used in the decision-making process.


·  Evaluate your decision.


o  Was the decision logical? Why or why not?

o  Did the decision solve the problem? Why or why not?

o  Is there a way to evaluate the effects of the decision over time? Why or why not?


Format and deliver your presentation according to instructor directions.

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