HISTORICAL CONTEXT OF SENTENCING
The United States sentencing is an organization in the judicial branch of government. Its purposes are defined by the sanction 142 criminal justice act which says “ Any court dealing with an offender in respect of his offense must have regard to the following purpose of sentencing: to establish sentencing policies and practices for the federal courts including guidelines to be consulted regarding the appropriate form and severity of punishment for offenders convicted of federal crime. Advise and assist congress and the executive branch in development of effective and efficient crime policy. To collect, analyze research and distribute a broad array of information on federal crime and sentencing issues serving as an information resource for congress, the executive branch, the courts, criminal justice practitioners the academic community and the public.” The U.S sentencing commission is set up to provide fairness and certainty in meeting the purpose of sentencing by avoiding unwanted imbalance against offenders, and to incorporate the purpose of sentencing (punishment, deterrence, incapacitation and rehabilitation) from there on, the commission is left with the responsibilities of analyzing the effects of sentencing guidelines on the criminal justice system. The federal judges are able to make fair and consistent sentencing by these guidelines considering the seriousness of the criminal conduct and the defendant’s criminal record.
HISTORICAL CONTEXT OF CORRECTIONS
The history of corrections were created to remove both poor’s and criminals from urban streets or to control them. The founding fathers of the National conference of charities and corrections (1874-1898) were governor appointed secretaries or executives of a state board of charities and responsible for oversight and reporting on the conditions of public institutions including prisons. Corrections in early America can be traced back to the European system that was used in England, France and Holland when early colonist first arrived to the country. Imprisonment was less common in the early colonial years but the jail system eventually became a major hit of corrections in America.
RESEARCH WRONGFUL CONVICTIONS
Wrongful convictions and imprisonment is a big matter in the United States. On several occasions innocent men and women have been convicted of a crime they simply did not do. Wrongful convictions are frequently cited by the death penalty; A number of reasons being eyewitness errors, government misconduct, snitch testimony, junk science or false concessions.
RESEARCH INCARCERATION RATES
As of the year 2013 the incarceration rate of the United States was the highest in the world at 716 per 100,000 of the national population. The united states has around 24.7 percent of the worlds 9.8 million prisoners
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