Comparison between exploration on earth and the space Dangers of space exploration.

Governments Budget on Space Exploration
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Outline of the essay
Introduction
• Brief history about space exploration
• Thesis statement
Pollution
• Chlorofluorocarbons effects
• Aluminum oxide effects
• Nitrogen oxides and debris effects
Cost of space exploration
• Information on cost
• Comparison between exploration on earth and the space
Dangers of space exploration
• Healthy problems related to space exploration
• Accidents on space

Introduction
Since antiquity, people have dreamed of exploring the space. Initially, aeroplanes were facilitated by world wars as military used them to launch their attacks. After the world war, the United States launched satellites and Alan Shepard became the initial American to ascend in the space. John F. Kennedy was the first American presided to sponsor moon exploration in the year 1961 that saw Neil Armstrong made tremendous step by being the first human being to step on the moon. Since then, there has been advancement in exploration to different planets such as the Mars and Jupiter and numerous learning and innovation. The government budget used on space exploration should be eliminated due to high cost, pollution and the dangers associated with space exploration.
Pollution on space
Space exploration has led to advancement in technology due to frequent research on the outer space. However, it is associated with space pollution that seems to outweigh the benefit gained and numerous amount of money is used in correcting the damage caused by the jets. According to Johnson (2014), Jets used cause massive damage to the ozone layer due to their fuel components. They usually use the uppermost layers, stratosphere that is composed of layer of gases that are stable without any interconversion for dilution of the effects caused. The jest use a composition of the chemical such as the chlorofluorocarbons and methyl bromide though numerous campaigns have led to slow facing out of these chemical and their usage (Johnson, 2014). Due to the condition and stable temperature in the stratosphere, the jet use fuel in form of solid or liquid fuel depending on the capability of the engine to operate under extreme temperature. The engines of rockets emit very reactive gases that lead to disintegration of ozone molecules. The jets also release minute particles that consist of aluminium oxide and soot. All these gases are the potential to cause havoc. Different propellants destroy the stratospheric layer at different rates. The solid propellers are proved to have a severe impact compared to the liquid propellants. The design of the engine is very important to the security of world climatic condition. In the atmosphere, the pollution is capable of combining with the water droplets and come out as an acid rain destruct the building by corroding the ozone layer damaging the ozone layer has many negative effect to human beings. Use of nitrogen oxides in the jets also has immense effects in the atmosphere. Nitrogen gas is capable to initiate to the process of ozone breakdown. It leads to disintegration of ozone molecule into a free oxygen molecule and the process continues for a long duration (Carol et al. 2011).One molecule of nitrogen is estimated to damage one million molecules of ozone.
The damage creates small opening in the stratospheres. The sun lethal radioactive rays are able to penetrate in the earth causing damage. The radiation such as the UV-B radiation is deadly when in contact with human or other organisms. It is capable of damaging the photosynthetic cells as they become denature due to the intensity of the wavelength. This leads to the turning of colour and stunted growth to the trees. Eventually, the plants die, as they are unable to perform photosynthesis, a key biological process. The effects of human being are many and they include many effects such as skin cancer. The UV-b rays are capable of damaging human skin causing cancer a deadly disease (Johnson, 2014). Cancer treatment has become a common occurrence in the world facilitate by environmental damage and difficult to treat. Advancement in technology should be aimed at improving the welfare of human beings and not risking their future existence on earth. Focusing on space exploration increases the number of trips made, a fact that increases the rate of pollution in the space.

The man made debris in the orbits lead to pollution. They pose a threat to human beings and living organisms. Continuous abrasion of the small particles from the spacecraft cause catastrophic fragmentation. The spacecraft component when they break such as the windows making the crafts such as steel, titanium, or ceramics found their way in the earth surface with time. They pollute the site they land on. They affect the vegetation and small microorganisms beneath as they provide a covering to the upper surface. This protects the vital energy from the sun reach hindering the photosynthesis. Carol et al. (2011) claims that they also interfere with free aeration and the organisms beneath are denied of free oxygen leading to death of aerobic microorganisms. Materials that make the jets are fragile under certain atmospheric pressure. The investment in exploration department and science increased the interest to event tourist and many researchers. This increases the amount of debris that is deposited in the sky and on earth that threaten the biodiversity. Johnson (2014) states that methods that ensure environmental protection such as afforestation and development of cleaner fuels such as wind and solar energy should be given the first priority. More effort need to be focused on exploration on earth on search on resources such as trees that can adapt in desert to combat desertification and improve livelihood as well as cleaner fuel technologies to prevent the rate on ozone layer depletion.
Cost of space exploration
How many funds is allocated to space exploration? A very high budget indeed. Government agencies are financing companies to develop innovations on the space. Space exploration is termed as a waste of money. There is much crisis going on the earth for exploration. Global warming is one of the things affecting the world that need to be solved. The government and individuals are focusing on space exploration yet they have failed to explore all the things on the earth. Space exploration involves expensive activities. For instance developing a spacecraft is too expensive for consideration. The money used to send people into space can be used to expand other incomplete sectors on the earth. A suggestion was made that instead of spending so much on the space, people should first explore the activities on earth. According Wall & Mike (2012), the money invested in space exploration could be used to explore education, fight poverty and come up with new medication. Proponents of the journey to space involve the use of high technology that is very expensive to achieve. Also, arguments show that space exploration aids the emergency of harmful weapons. The development of such space weapons like weaponized satellites and space technology has led to star wars. Instead of the government spending too much on space exploration, it should use the funds to work on issues on earth that are affecting the world. The earth is full of many things that need exploration and fixing.
Besides the government allocates a lot of funds to explore the space, forgetting the issues on earth where life exist. The government should stop spending more on space exploration than on the things on the earth. Dealing with issues affecting the earth should be given the priority. This is because the earth is the home for human, plants and animal lives. Why bother about places that do not support life? If it is unable to solve the problems on the earth, why should it budget for space exploration? Space exploration is just like science fiction. The area covered by space is imaginable. Discovering all the things on it is nearly a nightmare (Carol et al. 2011). Instead, the government should focus on earthly things affecting the human life.
Dangers of space exploration
Space exploration has adverse negative impacts compared to on earth. Space has an environment that does not support human mistakes or technical failures. Human beings doing exploration outside the earth’s orbit for long periods of time get exposed to more dangers. One of the danger is the lack of gravity or low gravity. Another one is the presence of harmful cosmic rays. The cosmic rays initiated by the zero gravity lead to severe health problems for astronauts in space. Traveling from areas of zero gravity to areas with gravity has effects on muscle physiology, bone, and cardiovascular organism. For instance, it leads to the inability to sustain a suitable blood pressure, especially when in a vertical position. If the exploration were conducted on the earth, these problems would not be experienced. Earth exploration is more secure than the space exploration. Governments should first deal with the problems affecting the earth rather than spending on the risky space exploration.
The other danger is the involvement of many accidents. There has been an adverse loss of lives and expensive property during space exploration (Carol et al. 2011). Experienced persons send to do explorations and inventions end up meeting death. Space exploration for this case leads to losing of skilled human power that could have been used to bring changes on earth (Wall & Mike 2012). Lots of funds invested in making rockets and coming up with the relevant programs get wasted after the accidents. These resources could have been used in implementing other useful inventions and researches on the earth. The earth is secure compared to space for exploration purposes. Instead of the government supporting and financing space studies, much should be budgeted on the exploration on the earth first.
Conclusion
Space exploration is seen to be less significant and should not be highly funded. Government agencies and bodies should first concentrate on the issues affecting the earth. The Earth is the planet that comfortably supports life. Much research and explorations should be initiated on it. Space exploration is associated with high-cost realization, pollution, and dangers associated with it. Conducting space exploration is known to include high financial expenditure. Pollution of the environment is an effect of space exploration. The rockets used and other harmful materials lead to environmental pollution. Space exploration is widely exposed to dangers like health problems and accidents. From the evidence, it is important to disapprove governmental budgeting for space exploration. There are many things that are not yet explored on earth. The government should first support the explorations on earth before extending to the risky space exploration.

Annotated bibliography
Carol, Chris. “Shuttle Program Brought Breakthroughs, but Proved Costly and Dangerous.”Stars and Stripes 5 July 2011: . Web. http://www.stripes.com/shuttle-program-brought-breakthroughs-but-proved-costly-and-dangerous-1.148418. Carol argues that “with launches that cost more than $1 billion on average, the program never lived up to its billing of providing cheap, regular access to space. Most disturbingly, the most capable spacecraft launched is also the most treacherous.” In Carol’s perspective the space program has brought nothing but dangers for its astronauts and crew, as well as nation filled with debt. The technology required to successfully complete such a mission is not readily available, thus the end of the space era is justified. Carol also argues that the psychological and physical issues that accompany space travel are far too great to ignore.

Wall, Mike. “NASA’s Shuttle Program Cost $209 Billion — Was It Worth It?” Space.com. N.p., 5 July 2011. Web. 12 Nov. 2012. http://www.space.com/12166-space shuttle- program-cost-promises-209-billion.html . Wall argues how “the shuttle program would enable safe, frequent and affordable access to space, the argument went, with flights occurring as often as once per week and costing as little as $20 million each. But much of that original vision didn’t come to pass.” The shuttle program’s objective was to find an affordable route into outer space. With each mission costing over twenty million dollars, the dream of an affordable trip became unattainable. It seems the limit of space exploration only extends as far as low-Earth orbit, this distance compared to the price angered many opponents of space exploration.

Johnson, Nicholas L. (2014). “Monitoring and Controlling Space pollution.” Scientific American 279(2):62–67

The article written by Jonson Nicholas on Monitoring and controlling space exploration is current and resourceful. It gives a summary of debris the lead to pollution of the environment. The debris result when the jets used in space exploration break due to pressure or other factors. The falling on earth or upper part and cause a lot of havoc. Gases are also among the major pollution caused the spacecraft. It lead to destruction of ozone layer and expose human being and organisms to many environmental risk. The article can quickly be used to summary all the effects caused by the spacecraft.
http://www.pollutionissues.com/Re-Sy/Space-Pollution.html

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