Define the problems and challenges that exist in crime and criminology.

The option to improve your grade on this assignment up to a maximum of 20% with a rewrite applies only if the following requirements are met:

Assignment 4, Part 1 was submitted on time.

Rewrite of Assignment 4, Part 2 is to be submitted on time.

All criteria were addressed in the first submission of the assignment.

The improvement of 20% will depend on the professor’s evaluation, using the same criteria as for the first submission.

The revised grade cannot exceed 94%.

Before revising the assignment, you should:

Review the feedback from your professor.

Review the criteria for Assignment 4 and make sure you have addressed the criteria thoroughly.

Write a four to six (4-6) page paper in which you:

Give a brief explanation of your chosen topical area.
Based on your chosen topic, define the problems and challenges that exist in crime and criminology. Explain the historical issues that have contributed to the problems and challenges.
Address the internal and external stakeholders and how they contribute to both the problems and the solutions in crime and criminology.
Discuss the data and information that you have collected while conducting research on your topic. Discuss how the data relates to the problems and challenges in crime and criminology.
Develop a solution that addresses the problems and challenges in crime and criminology, based on your research.
Use at least six (6) scholarly sources in this assignment. Note: Wikipedia, Ask.com, Answers.com, Freedictionary.com, and other open source Websites do not qualify as scholarly.

Note: These criteria are the same as the previous assignment.

Your assignment must follow these formatting requirements:

Be typed, double spaced, using Times New Roman font (size 12), with one-inch margins on all sides; citations and references must follow APA or school-specific format. Check with your professor for any additional instructions.
Include a cover page containing the title of the assignment, the student’s name, the professor’s name, the course title, and the date. The cover page and the reference page are not included in the required assignment page length.

The specific course learning outcomes associated with this assignment are:

Describe the nature of crime and criminology.

Explore the nature and prosecution of global crime

Discuss new evolutions in theory to explain current evolutions in crime, such as cybercrime.

Use technology and information resources to research issues in crime and criminal behavior.

Write clearly and concisely about crime and criminal behavior using proper writing mechanics.

Grading for this assignment will be based on answer quality, logic / organization of the paper, and language and writing skills, using the following rubric.

Points: 200

Assignment 4, Part 2 (optional): Research Project Resubmission

Criteria

Unacceptable

Below 60% F

Meets Minimum Expectations

60-69% D

Fair

70-79% C

Proficient

80-89% B

Exemplary

90-100% A

1. Give or revise content, based on professor’s feedback, a brief explanation of your chosen topical area.

Weight: 15%

Did not submit or incompletely gave or revised content, based on professor’s feedback, a brief explanation of your chosen topical area.

Insufficiently gave or revised content, based on professor’s feedback, a brief explanation of your chosen topical area.

Partially gave or revised content, based on professor’s feedback, a brief explanation of your chosen topical area.

Satisfactorily gave or revised content, based on professor’s feedback, a brief explanation of your chosen topical area.

Thoroughly gave or revised content, based on professor’s feedback, a brief explanation of your chosen topical area.

2. Based on your chosen topic, define or revise content, based on professor’s feedback, the problems and challenges that exist in crime and criminology. Explain or revise content, based on professor’s feedback, the historical issues that have contributed to the problems and challenges.

Weight: 15%

Did not submit or incompletely defined or revised content, based on professor’s feedback, the problems and challenges that exist in crime and criminology, based on your chosen topic. Did not submit or incompletely explained or revised content, based on professor’s feedback, the historical issues that have contributed to the problems and challenges.

Insufficiently defined or revised content, based on professor’s feedback, the problems and challenges that exist in crime and criminology, based on your chosen topic. Insufficiently explained or revised content, based on professor’s feedback, the historical issues that have contributed to the problems and challenges.

Partially defined or revised content, based on professor’s feedback, the problems and challenges that exist in crime and criminology, based on your chosen topic. Partially explained or revised content, based on professor’s feedback, the historical issues that have contributed to the problems and challenges.

Satisfactorily defined or revised content, based on professor’s feedback, the problems and challenges that exist in crime and criminology, based on your chosen topic. Satisfactorily explained or revised content, based on professor’s feedback, the historical issues that have contributed to the problems and challenges.

Thoroughly defined or revised content, based on professor’s feedback, the problems and challenges that exist in crime and criminology, based on your chosen topic. Thoroughly explained or revised content, based on professor’s feedback, the historical issues that have contributed to the problems and challenges.

3. Address or revise content, based on professor’s feedback, the internal and external stakeholders and how they contribute to both the problems and the solutions in crime and criminology.

Weight: 15%

Did not submit or incompletely addressed or revised content, based on professor’s feedback, the internal and external stakeholders and how they contribute to both the problems and the solutions in crime and criminology.

Insufficiently addressed or revised content, based on professor’s feedback, the internal and external stakeholders and how they contribute to both the problems and the solutions in crime and criminology.

Partially addressed or revised content, based on professor’s feedback, the internal and external stakeholders and how they contribute to both the problems and the solutions in crime and criminology.

Satisfactorily addressed or revised content, based on professor’s feedback, the internal and external stakeholders and how they contribute to both the problems and the solutions in crime and criminology.

Thoroughly addressed or revised content, based on professor’s feedback, the internal and external stakeholders and how they contribute to both the problems and the solutions in crime and criminology.

4. Discuss or revise content, based on professor’s feedback, the data and information that you have collected while conducting research on your topic. Discuss or revise content, based on professor’s feedback, how the data relates to the problems and challenges in crime and criminology.

Weight: 15%

Did not submit or incompletely discussed or revised content, based on professor’s feedback, the data and information that you have collected while conducting research on your topic. Did not submit or incompletely discussed or revised content, based on professor’s feedback, how the data relates to the problems and challenges in crime and criminology.

Insufficiently discussed or revised content, based on professor’s feedback, the data and information that you have collected while conducting research on your topic. Did not submit or incompletely discussed or revised content, based on professor’s feedback, how the data relates to the problems and challenges in crime and criminology.

Partially discussed or revised content, based on professor’s feedback, the data and information that you have collected while conducting research on your topic. Did not submit or incompletely discussed or revised content, based on professor’s feedback, how the data relates to the problems and challenges in crime and criminology.

Satisfactorily discussed or revised content, based on professor’s feedback, the data and information that you have collected while conducting research on your topic. Did not submit or incompletely discussed or revised content, based on professor’s feedback, how the data relates to the problems and challenges in crime and criminology.

Thoroughly discussed or revised content, based on professor’s feedback, the data and information that you have collected while conducting research on your topic. Did not submit or incompletely discussed or revised content, based on professor’s feedback, how the data relates to the problems and challenges in crime and criminology.

5. Develop or revise content, based on professor’s feedback, a solution that addresses the problems and challenges in crime and criminology, based on your research.

Weight: 15%

Did not submit or incompletely developed or revised content, based on professor’s feedback, a solution that addresses the problems and challenges in crime and criminology, based on your research.

Insufficiently developed or revised content, based on professor’s feedback, a solution that addresses the problems and challenges in crime and criminology, based on your research.

Partially developed or revised content, based on professor’s feedback, a solution that addresses the problems and challenges in crime and criminology, based on your research.

Satisfactorily developed or revised content, based on professor’s feedback, a solution that addresses the problems and challenges in crime and criminology, based on your research.

Thoroughly developed or revised content, based on professor’s feedback, a solution that addresses the problems and challenges in crime and criminology, based on your research.

6. Conform to the APA formatting standards.

Weight: 5%

Did not submit or incompletely conformed to the APA formatting standards.

Insufficiently conformed to the APA formatting standards.

Partially conformed to the APA formatting standards.

Satisfactorily conformed to the APA formatting standards.

Thoroughly conformed to the APA formatting standards.

7. 6 references

Weight: 10%

No references provided

Does not meet the required number of references; all references poor quality choices.

Does not meet the required number of references; some references poor quality choices.

Meets number of required references; all references high quality choices.

Exceeds number of required references; all references high quality choices.

8. Display accurate spelling, punctuation, and grammar and write in a clear and organized manner.

Weight: 10%

More than 8 errors present

7-8 errors present

5-6 errors present

3-4 errors present

0-2 errors present

Causes of Juvenile Delinquency in Girls

Introduction

In the ancient times, it was hard to find the girls on the offensive sides of the coin. But with time, the offenses by the girls has been on the rise. The underlying reasons for their behavior have not been well known, but one thing is for sure, a lot of influences contributes to the behavior of the child (Feld, 2009).By 1980s, the juvenile delinquency for the boys was high as compared to that for the girls and. Therefore, it is estimated that that there are a lot of differences that have happened and caused the girls to behave differently from the norm. At a younger age, both boys and girls have the very active mental capacity and, therefore, they may behave in a way that can make them delinquent as explained by (Feld, 2009). It can also be attributed to drugs and public order which caused the behavior to be that way.

There are existent risk factors on the part of the girls that cause them to behave that. On consideration of delinquency for girls are; biological, psychological and environmental. While these factors are at some point very detrimental to the girl child (Sayles, 2005) , it is obvious they are unavoidable to expose the girl child to it. It is therefore very important for the society to understand the effects that come with it and how to handle them as at early age. The discussion underlying in this paper is based on longitudinal research that has been done by various studies and how they have been handled in the recent times.

Biological and Individual Factors

A girl while growing is faced with some factors that have to be taken care of as they cause the girls to behave in quite a detrimental way. Because the biological factors may be genetic to one, the criminal factor in the girl child may not be lost. Studies done by Lombroso shows that the factors on the nervous system and endocrine have been so resultant in influencing the juvenile delinquency in girls.

According to (Flannery, 2004), when a girl has been born of sinful wedlock like a rape, it is assumed that the traits of the parents may be carried along the life of that girls. While the girl grows up, it is easy to have them behave in a way that cannot be recommended for other girls. What mostly determines the fate of the child is the fact that, when the upbringing is good, chances of developing good traits is high. In any case when the mother lets the child believe that they are a product of offensive behavior, they may be forced to have a revengeful life as a matter of self-satisfaction and hate (Flannery, 2004).Further, girls who are orphaned may not have a good upbringing. Lombroso studies of 1987 show that the girl delinquency was at 60 % and was attributed to both biological and individual factors. He concluded that most of the offenses are innate, and many of the girls are born with perverse propensities in which the parent has the sole responsibility to tame them around.

On the same radar, when the girl matures faster, it is always good for her growth. When the puberty stage gets them late, their behaviors tend to be detrimental as a result of them wanting to evade some facts of life. These facts are on the need to disapprove that they are not grown up enough to think like a mature person as posted by (Miller, 2002).It is always taken to be a case of ignorance too.

Stressors, Trauma and Mental Trauma

Delinquency girls are caused majorly by the inability of the body to respond to the stresses. In 1908, Benet and Simon devised a scale of tests developed a scale that could be used to test the mental development of the kids (Gilligan, 1982).In a study that h was done, it shows that at around 5 % of the girl delinquencies, the majority are caused by mental trauma. Even though the different studies by different scientists shows that the mental trauma has no exact scale to which the rate of delinquency is caused.

Mental trauma and stresses results to delinquency because of the following reasons. According to (Gilligan, 1982) When a person is so much stressed with life, they don’t to avoid to appreciate values. In most of the cases, the value system is lost, and the person is known to occur as a result of impulses. In the same way, the girl may not be in a position to consider the consequences of the behavior. The girl at the point of mental trauma may not be in a position to question their behaviors and in turn, they fail to appreciate the moral code existing and to differentiate the right and the wrong. The last reason is the need for the girl child to compensate their inferiorities in school with delinquent behaviors (Giordano, 1986).In this case, they end up misbehaving and having a negative conception of others and themselves.

Role of Religious activities in delinquency in girls

It cannot be assumed that the role of the church, schools and society is negligible in the changing the facts on girl delinquency. Schools have an outstanding role when it comes to changing the aspects of delinquency as they help to instill discipline in girls as young as 5-year-old. The church, on the other hand, has a responsibility to teach about the ethical standards as per the expectation of the society (Miller, 2002).They, therefore, cause the stability of the girls mind and direct them to the expected needs.

If the girl child is left to hang in the balance, the eventual effect of their behaviors may not be good and as such, the impact caused goes a long way to destroying their life’s forever (Sayles, 2005).

Programming the Justice System

Since in the initial stage of the issues of the delinquency had not been so perverse as it is today, measures have been taken to ensure that the delinquent acts by the girls are tamed (Feld, 2009).The justice system has been well framed in most of the countries where the delinquent behaviors of the girls are tamed .It is also expected that within the justice system, the girls who are under mistreatment are given programs to ensure that mental depression is well handled, how to supervise and monitor them through a causal link of the same. In most cases, the justice system has sought to incorporate school and interdisciplinary models for the behaviors that cause delinquency in girls.

Conclusion

It is evident that girl’s delinquency is a challenge as at the moment. It is also true that the society has sought measures to have them put in shape. It is expected therefore that, for the delinquent cases in girls to subside, much considerations has to be put on factors as on biological, individual and mental trauma. Juvenile delinquency is on the rise and a good justice system well programmed can be so helpful in curbing the menace.

References

Feld. (2009). Girls in the Juvenile Justice system.In the Delinquent Girl. Philadelphia: Temple University Press.

Flannery, D. (2004). The Impact of Pubertal status, timing and age. Journal of Adolescent Studies, 151-166.

Gilligan, C. (1982). Ina different Voice: Psychological Theory and women Development1. Cambridge: Harvard University Press.

Giordano, P. (1986). Friendships and Delinquency. American Journal of Sociology, 1170-1202.

Miller, H. C. (2002). The New Psychology and the Teacher. Jarrolds.

Sayles, M. B. (2005). The Problem Child in School. Joint Committee on Methods of Preventing Delinquency

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