Describe factors both external and internal factors affecting an individual’s health.

A working definition of health is important and runs on varies concepts. However, some
of these concepts are not taken seriousness and as a result, there may be a need to put them into a
working definition of health. Health refers to the wellness of an individual. The definition of
health should, therefore, include various factors both external and internal factors affecting an
individual’s health. Different scholars and specialists have attempted to come up with a working
definition of health to give it the weight it deserves. The World Health Organization describes
“health as a state of complete physical, mental and social well-being other than just the absence
of disease” (WHO, 1988). This definition of health covers all aspects of a human beings life and
elaborates what the health of an individual should be.
The National Wellness Institute, defines wellness as a continuous process that involves
making and being aware of life choices that contribute towards successful existence (Kent, &
Thompson, 2014). Following the example of these two definitions from different organizations,
health is therefore based on both the physical and psychological health of a person. Multiple
factors seem to affect the wellness of the body. The factors range from spiritual, physical
emotional and even cultural areas within the life of an individual. An inclusive definition of
health and wellbeing is helpful in enabling an individual become more active when it comes to
matters concerning their health (Kriebel 2001).
The definition of health as the physical, mental, emotional and social wellness fits
various theories of health. These theories include the socio-economic model, the precautionary
principle, sustainable production as well as a life-course approach. All these concepts are
important in ensuring that the health of an individual is promoted. The working definition of
health helps in the establishment of the protocols to be used in developing ways of maintaining
or improving health. According to specialists, the health of an individual is not only based
physically but it may also be affected by psychological factors (Northridge, Sclar, & Biswas,
2003). For instance, one may not necessarily be sick in the body but their health may not well if
their brain function is not fine. When one cannot reason normally, then they may not be able to
make decisions that are healthy and may also end up injuring themselves. The health of the mind
is, therefore, a very important matter (Wikler 2002).
One of the major risks to health is the transportation issue. This area seems to pose a risk
for most of the individual. There are factors such as road accidents which may lead to the loss of
a limb or the amputation of a particular body part. When one’s health is put at risk in such a
manner, then there is the need for people to come up with means of ensuring that their health is
protected. Here, the precautionary principle comes into play as through precautions, and then the
severity of damage can be reduced or avoided all at one (Arah 2009).
Health and wellness are important to the transportation field in various ways. For one,
when an individual is moving from one point to another, then they are most likely to bump into
another individual. During this process, there is a high chance that lack of proper concentration
or full control may lead into problems during transportation (Ben-Shlomo, & Kuh, 2002).
Therefore, the person behind the wheel has to be of good health mentally so that they are not
destructed and o that they can focus as they transport or travel. They also have to be of proper
health physically to help them avoid causing accidents due to pain or discomfort in their physical
body. They should also look out for their emotional health to avoid landing into accidents. The
transportation field is an important field and the people involved are required to be of good
health and sound mind. Transportation also involves the people outside the transportation vehicle
or vessel. As a result, the cause of the accident may not come from the person driving at the
outsider passing by or cycling by the vehicle. Due to this, a sound mind is of great importance
and precautions should also be put in place to handle situations of recklessness by others. One of
the precautions is avoiding moving within areas of transport or letting healthy people take charge

of transporting when one is ill. This may reduce the chances of an accident occurring in the
transport field (Malekafzali 2009).
In conclusion, the health of an individual is very important. A healthy body is helpful in
enabling one to live their everyday lives comfortably. They can engage in different activities
such as running, working and socializing at ease. When one’s body is not healthy, then they may
not be able to handle simple tasks such as fending for themselves or following simple
instructions. The mind, the physical body and the emotional and social aspects of one’s life are
the major components on which health can be analyzed using. To maintain an individual’s
health, taking the precautionary measures and upholding the principles of health is paramount.
The principles of health are more of guidelines to having a successful life. When one can
maintain their health, then other aspects of their lives can run smoothly. Making sure that the diet
of an individual is healthy and balanced is going to help prolong the chances of maintaining their

Kriebel, D., Tickner, J., Epstein, P., Lemons, J., Levins, R., Loechler, E. L., … & Stoto, M.
(2001). The precautionary principle in environmental science.Environmental health
perspectives, 109(9), 871.
Kent, J. L., & Thompson, S. (2014). The three domains of urban planning for health and well
being. Journal of Planning Literature, 29(3), 239-256.
Wikler, D. (2002). Personal and social responsibility for health. Ethics & International
Affairs, 16(02), 47-55.
Northridge, M. E., Sclar, E. D., & Biswas, M. P. (2003). Sorting out the connections between the
built environment and health: a conceptual framework for navigating pathways and
planning healthy cities. Journal of Urban Health,80(4), 556-568.
Ben-Shlomo, Y., & Kuh, D. (2002). A life course approach to chronic disease epidemiology:
conceptual models, empirical challenges and interdisciplinary perspectives. International
journal of epidemiology, 31(2), 285-293.
Arah, O. A. (2009). On the relationship between individual and population health. Medicine,
health care and philosophy, 12(3), 235-244.
Malekafzali, S. (2009). Healthy, equitable transportation policy: recommendations and
research. Healthy, equitable transportation policy: recommendations and research. pp.
World Health Organization. (1988). Health is a State of Complete Physical, Mental, and Social
Well-being and Not Merely the Absence of Disease Or Infirmity. World Health
Organization, Division of Public Information and Education for Health

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