STUDY QUESTIONS FOR THE FINAL EXAM
What is an ecosystem?
What are ecosystem services?
How does energy move through an ecosystem?
Why should we conserve biodiversity?
What are the main threats to biodiversity?
What is habitat fragmentation and how does it affect biodiversity?
Describe how widespread landscape alteration has affected the spread of diseases around the world.
Describe how the Palm Oil Industry has affected biodiversity in Indonesia.
Explain 3 ways that migrating animals affected by climate change?
How are coral reefs affected by climate change?
How do conservation corridors (e.g. the Yellowstone to Yukon Conservation Initiative) help the conservation of biodiversity?
Describe why the endemic Black Robin (Petroica traverse) almost went extinct and how it was brought back from the brink of extinction.
What is the minimum viable population of a species?
How does a seed bank preserve biodiversity?
How can DNA storage help conserve biodiversity?
How does the exotic pet trade affect biodiversity?
What are the main ways that zoos help conservation?
Why are captive raised animals often unfit for reintroduction to the wild?
Why did some people call captive raised condors “feathered pigs”?
Explain two arguments for and two arguments against a “hands on” approach to conservation?
What is double-clutching?
How did early sex determination help increase condor populations
How is behavioural modification used to condition captive condors?
How can translocation of a species (e.g. wild turkeys) help conserve biodiversity?
What is a keystone species?
What is a trophic cascade?
What is an apex predator?
What is an ecosystem (habitat) engineer?
Explain how trees and herbivore species in Yellowstone Park responded to reintroduced wolves.
How does grass respond to grazing? How does this lead to grazing plains like the Seregeti?
Describe why seed distribution and nutrient cycling are necessary for ecosystem function.
How does the African Savannah Elephant (Loxodonta Africana) affect Savannah ecosystems?
How can fire suppression lead to a losssof biodivsersity and how can forest fires improve biodiversity?
What does the Rewilding Movement thinks is missing from North American and European forests.
What are the 4 “foundational” ideas that led to National Parks in North America?
Describe the key developments that led to the creation of Banff National Park.
According to William Cronin, “What’s Wrong with Wilderness”?
What is an endemic species and why are they frequently vulnerable to extinction?
What is a biodiversity hotspot and how can this designation help conserve biodiversity?
Explain what the “Fortress Conservation” model is, why it is ultimately unsustainable but why it may be necessary under some conditions.
How does Community Conservation help protect wildlife? What are common problems community conservation programs face?
Describe 2 ways that ecotourism positively affects the welfare of wildlife and two ways it negatively affects the welfare of wildlife?
What are the 2 main ways that trophy hunting has benefitted conservation and what are 2 common pitfalls in using it to conserve endangered species?
What is sustainable forestry and how does wildlife benefit from it?
Explain how sustainable forestry is different from sustainable mining in regards to habitat conservation?
How does the Fair Trade movement help conserve biodiversity? What are common problems with it in regards to the conservation of biodiversity?
What are the 4 main strategies to conserve biodiversity we discussed in this course?
Describe the necessary criteria for the sustainable conservation of biodiversity.
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