Discuss About what percentage of the Earth’s surface is covered by water?

1. About what percentage of the Earth’s surface is covered by water?

2. Where did life on Earth most probably evolved?

3. What does most of the matter in the universe appear to consist of?

4. List the origins of the ocean in order of importance.

5. Approximately when was the first awareness of the spherical shape of the Earth developed in Europe?

6. Which was the first expedition to undertake a long ocean voyage in vessels specially designed and constructed for the purpose of long-distance travel ?

7. Who was the “first ocean scientist?”

8. Why was John Harrison’s invention of the chronometer important?

9. Which man was the first to publish a reasonably accurate chart of an ocean current?

10. Glomar Challenger is known mainly for_________.

11. List the inner layers of the Earth and their composition.

12. Define latitude and longitude.

13. Define the following terms:

seafloor spreading
transform faults
fracture zones
seamount chains
Pacific hotspots
buoyant (or isostatic) equilibrium
continental crust
oceanic crust
Mid ocean ridges
Turbidity current

14. If two oceanic plates collide at a relatively fast speed, and one is much older and cooler (therefore denser) than the other, what will probably happen?

15. List the evidence for plate tectonics.

16. List and describe the parts of the continental margins (ie. continental slope, rise, etc).

17. How are the coastal margins classified?

18. Describe hydrothermal springs or vents.

19. Describe the formation of atolls.

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