What is the purpose of negative feedback loops? How do they work? Explain the comparison between biological regulation and a thermostat. What do they have to do with homeostasis? Why are examples of positive feedback loops so rare in biological systems? What is an example?
What is the role of the endocrine system in homeostasis (body regulation)? What are the differences between signaling by the nervous, paracrine, and endocrine systems? What are the major endocrine glands and where are they located?
. Be sure to discuss the stimulus, the sensor, the integrating center, the effector, and the response for each. Water balance through ADH, calcium homeostasis through PTH, blood sugar through insulin and glucagon, appetite through leptin and ghrelin, and the HPA axis (stress response).
1-What is the role of environmental variables as drivers of community composition and distribution? Why are some species are more abundant in some places than others, or just not present in all the planet homogeneously?
2-Which are the principles behind the concept of competition? Why do species compete? What do they compete for? Analyze the concept of niche.
3-What is predation, and how can predation influence prey populations?
4-Analyze some examples of how plants and animals defend themselves against predation.
5-What is symbiosis? Compare and contrast the different kinds of symbiotic relationships. Describe a possible experiment that could be done to test what kind of interaction really occurs between two species.
6-Discuss the keystone species concept and how predation can regulate comptetion
7-What is altruism? Why could altruism appear to be a problem for the theory of evolution by natural selection? What are the ways in which altruism can result in propagation of the individuals alleles in the next generation, or even actually benefit the individual?
8-What is kin selection? How can we quantify and compute degrees of relatedness to our relatives?
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