Drugs in American Society


Answer this question in 3 pages have atleast 4 Sources being one from the text which I have list below to quote from and cite. You may use other research to answer question Do not use wikipedia


  1. The professional subculture of jourlnalism is made up of several components or elements, some which push a drug story in the direction of bias and others of which toward objectivity and accuracy. Explain what these elements are and how they could have such influences on a drug story, giving examples from specific drugs during specific eras. Make certain to include a discussion on the four theories of media bias to help you address this issue

From the text book:

Drugs in American Society, 8th Edition

ISBN-13:  978-0-07-811154-9

Author(s): Goode, Erich

Chapter 3 page 59-60

Four theories of media bias

(directly from the book word for word for citation source)

  1. Four theories that attempt to explain the direction of media slant or bias come to mind. The first is the ruling theory (OR “TOP-DOWN”THEORY), WHICH ARGUES THAT THE MEDIA CONSCIOUSLY AND PURPOSELY SERVE THE INTERESTS OF THE RULING ELITE. In one version of this theory, mainstream society, including representatives of the media, has been social-izzed to accept the ruling elites version of the theory, members of the elite conspire to coerce representatives of society’s mainstream institutions, including the media, to accept versions of the truth that agree with their own class interest.
  2. A second and related but distinctly different theory of media bias is the money machine theory. This perspective argues that owners of newspapers and television stations are interested in the bottom line, not political indoctrination. Ruling elite theories(Page 60) would argue that earning a profit depends on maintain ideological hegemony, but many ideologically motivated systems do not turn a profit. Many profitable enterprises may, each in its own way, challenge the status quo. In principle, profits and ideology are separate and distinct from each other. According to journalists Leonard Downie Jr. and Robert Kaiser(2002), summing up the money machine theory, as a result of the pressure to earn an unrealistically high profit margin from newspapers and television news, the media are being debased. In short, news coverage is unduly influenced by the bean counters.
  3. The third theory of media bias is the grassroots theory, which argues that the press responds to the biases of the public at large by reporting stories inways that are appealing to their readership as a whole. Hence, it is the general public’s view that determines the slant of the news. The bias of the media is the bias of their audiences. The grassroots theory doesn’t necessarily hold that the general public has interests that oppose or support those of the ruling class. Some view of the public at large are populist and anti-elitist, While others are consonant or in agreement with the interests of the elite.
  4. The fouth theory of media bias is the professional subculture theory. According to this view, the media approach the events of the day according to distinct norms, expectations, and ethics of practitioners of the profession of journalism. For instance, one norm among journalists is to verify a story with two or more sources. A second is to always keep in mind the cardinal rule of journalism: “Accuracy, accuracy, accuracy”(Mencher, 1997, p.34) A third is to “Tell the story in human terms. Human interest is an essential ingredient of news”(p.51). A fourth is shape the story with a specific audience in mind (pp.66-67).

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