How coherent was crusader strategy under the leaders in the first half of the thirteenth century?
Which rulers made the best crusaders?
What was it that the ‘pilgrims’ of the crusades wanted to achieve?
There are three essay titles, just choose one of them,thanks
At least 12 reference 3000words（includes footnote）
some reading maybe useful:
Bull, M. G., ‘The Roots of lay enthusiasm for the First Crusade’, History 78 (1993), 353-72, and in ed. T. F. Madden, The Crusades: The Essential Readings (Oxford, 2002), ch. 8.
Bull, M., Knightly Piety and the Lay Response to the First Crusade (Oxford, 1993).
Runciman, S., The Crusades, (3 vols., 5th edn, London, 1951-4). On the motivations on the first and fourth crusades.
France, J., ‘Patronage and the appeal of the First Crusade’, in ed. T. F. Madden, The Crusades: The Essential Readings (Oxford, 2002), ch. 9.
Hill, J. H. and Hill, L. L., Raymond IV Count of Toulouse, Westport, Connetticut, 1980 (reprint of 1962 edn.). On him as a crusader.
Hill, J. H. and L. L., ‘The convention of Alexius Comnenus and Raymond of St. Gilles’, American Historical Review 58 (1953), 322-7.
Internet Medieval Sourcebook: The Gesta Francorum
Documents 4, 11, 19 in Phillips, Crusades
Documents 87, 89 in Evergates, T. (ed.), Feudal Society in Medieval France: Documents from the County of Champagne (Philadephia, 1993).
Peters, Christian Society, ii. 2.
Extracts from Ernoul’s Chronicle (c. 1231) in ed. D. Pringle, Pilgrimage to Jerusalem and the Holy land, 1187-1291. Crusade Texts in Translation 23 (Farnham, 2012), no. 3, ch 7 (pp. 136-43).
Internet Medieval Sourcebook under ‘The Fifth and Later Crusades’: Cologne Chronicle: The Children’s Crusade, 1212.
Anderson, G., et al., ‘An economic interpretation of the medieval crusades’, The Journal of European Economic History, 21 (1992), 339-63.
Bronstein, J., ‘The Crusades and the Jews: Some Reflections on the 1096 massacre’, History Compass 5/4 (2007), 1268-79.
Cahzan, R., ‘The Anti-Jewish violence of 1096: Perpetrators and dynamics’, in A. Abulafia, A. (ed.), Religious Violence Between Christians and Jews: Medieval Roots, Modern Perspectives (Basingstoke, 2002). E-book.
Dickson, G., The Children’s Crusade (Basingstoke, 2008). E-book
Finucane, R. C., Soldiers of the Faith, (London, 1983).
France, J., ‘Patronage and the crusade’s appeal’ in Phillips, First Crusade, 5-20.
France, J., ‘Two types of vision on the First Crusade: Stephen of Valence and Peter Bartholemew’, Crusades, 5 (2006).
Gabriel, M., ‘Against the enemies of Christ: The role of Count Emicho in Anti-Jewish violence of the first crusade’, in ed. F. Frassetto, Christioan Attitudes Towards Jews in the Middle Ages (New York/London: 2007), pp. 61- 82.
Hansbery, J., ‘The Childrens’Crusade’, Catholic Historical Review 24 (1938).
Hill, R., ‘Crusading warfare: a camp-follower’s view 1097-1120’, in ed. R. Allen-Brown, Proceedings of the Battle Conference: 1, 1978, (Ipswich, 1979), 75-83. DIGITISED
Housley, N., The Crusaders (Stroud, 2002).
Flori, J., ‘Ideology and motivations in the First Crusade’ in Nicholson, H. (ed.), The Crusades (Basingstoke, 2005). ch. 1. E-book.
Kedar, B. Z., ‘The Passenger list of a crusader ship, 1250: towards the history of the popular element on the Seventh Crusade’, Studi medievali 3: 13 (1972), 267-79 and in idem., The Franks in the Levant, (Aldershot, 1993).
Kedar, B., ‘Crusade historians and the massacres of 1096’, Jewish History, 12 (1998), 11-31.
Kostick, C., The Social Structure of the First Crusade (Leiden/Boston, 2008). E-book.
Kostick, C. (ed). The Crusades and the Near East: Cultural Histories (London/New York, 2011).
Kostick, C., ‘The terms milites, esquites and equestres in the early crusading histories’, Nottingham Medieval Studies 50 (2006), 1-21.
Kostick, C., ‘Social unrest and Conrad III’s march through Anatolia’, German History 28 (2010), 125-142.
Kostick, C., ‘Iuvenes and the First Crusade (1096-99): knights in search of glory?’, Journal of Medieval History 73 (2009), 177-208.
Kostick, C., ‘A further discussion of the authorship of the Gesta Francorum’, Reading Medieval Studies 35 (2009), 1-11.
Lapina, E., ‘Gambling and gaming in the Holy Land: Chess, dice and other games in the crusader sources’, Crusades, 12 (2013).
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