Qualitative research paper on sleep and effects and how to sleep better. Perform single subject research. Use no more than two varibles for the interventions on how to obtain better sleep. Paper must include Hypothesis, Abstract, Introduction, Literature review, methodology section, discussion, conclusion, and chart of data collected. More information about the paper PLEASE READ!! Title of Paper (No Bold – Same as on Title Page) Provide a succinct (2-3 pages) introduction to the study. State the overall area of the study. Give basic information about the problem to orient the reader. Describe why it is important to examine this problem at this time. If possible, provide brief statistics to indicate the incidence of the problem (avoid quotes and complicated stats). Brief Description of the Study Give a brief description of the study – the intervention that will be examined or the program that will be evaluated, who will participate, the experimental design, and the outcomes that will be measured. Remember that the study as it is described in this section should correspond with your research questions and methodology section. Research Question(s) and Hypothesis (es) State 1 to 4 research questions. Qualitative research questions are often worded differently than quantitative research questions are. Qualitative questions tend to be about thoughts, perceptions, feelings, beliefs, and attitudes. An example might be, “What do children who drop out of school identify as contributors to their decisions to drop out?” Significance of the Study Answer the question, “How does this study advance social work practice, program development, or policy?” Discuss how this problem affects individuals, couples, families, groups, communities, and society as a whole. Explain what actions or changes would be suggested if the research intervention were supported by the study results. Literature Review(4-5 pages) Orient the reader to your topic (including a brief history if relevant), arouse the reader’s interest, and tell the reader what to expect in this section by identifying the major subsections that will follow. Review Utilize 5 to 10 empirically-based (based on data) articles published within the last 10 years in peer-reviewed journals. Organize the information into subheadings. The order of topics presented will often go as follows: Nature of the problem, incidence, changes over time What is known about what causes the problem (If the focus of your study) What is not known about what causes the problem Interventions that have been tried and how they worked What is not known about how to solve the problem Summary This section should point out the major areas of knowledge that have yet to be developed regarding this topic and identify the unique contribution your study makes to this need. Even if the modifications you have made to other work that has been done are minor, point out the importance of learning this new information that your study will offer. Methodology (3-4 pages) State the topics that will be covered in this section. Definition of Variables and Terms in the Study In qualitative research, variables and terms are often not defined in advance. This method is more likely to rely on respondents to provide definitions for important terms based on their own perceptions and ideas about what the terms mean. You should provide a definition, however, if you are using a term that would not be familiar to the general public (for example, dually diagnosed). Description of the Methodology (study design) Explain whether your study is qualitative or quantitative and whether it is cross-sectional (single point in time) or longitudinal (more than one measure from the same people). If you are evaluating an intervention, explain how you are going to determine the efficacy of your intervention (for example, pre-tests and post-tests). Explain if you are comparing the group getting the intervention to any other group on the outcomes of interest (a control or comparison group). If so, explain how the control/comparison group would be selected or how people would get assigned to that group and address how comparable/non-comparable the control/comparison group is to the group getting the intervention. Explain if you are using more than one source of data to “triangulate” measures of your outcome of interest (for example, parent ratings of child behavior and teacher ratings of child behavior). Note that, in qualitative research, the use of pre-tests and post-tests and the use of comparison and control groups is less common. Qualitative research tends to rely more on case record reviews, observations, and in-depth interviews. However, qualitative data can be gathered using any study design, so be creative! Population and Study Participants Describe the people who are in your intervention group and any control/comparison group you may be using. Provide some basic demographic information, if it is available. State how many people are taking part in the study, and if you are selecting them from a larger pool of potential participants, describe how they will be selected and recruited. Instrumentation Most qualitative research depends primarily on in-depth interviews. These can be structured, semi-structured, or unstructured. If you would plan to engage in such interviews, explain how your interview schedule would be developed and reviewed. Provide a copy. If you would be doing case record evaluations, journal reviews, or observations, explain how you would extract the data from the source. This would often entail developing a case record abstraction form or an observation checklist. Explain how these would be developed and reviewed. The concepts of reliability and validity are often not used in qualitative research. Rather, qualitative methods depend on the concept of “trustworthiness.” In qualitative research, the researcher is really the instrument, as the researcher himself/herself is the means of extracting meaning from the data. Thus, the risk is that researcher bias will lead to the extraction of data in an unreliable/invalid way. How would you guard against biased interpretation of data? Remember that both your intervention and its outcome may involve measurement – for example, if you are going to implement group therapy, you may want to record how many days you do this and for how many minutes a day, who was there, and some measure of each person’s participation. That way you have a strong measure of your independent variable. Describe that in this section as well. Every variable that is addressed in your research questions and operational definitions should also be addressed in this section. Data Collection and Procedures Describe exactly what you plan to do and when. Explain how and when you will collect each measure and how and when you will begin the intervention and for how long it will continue. Every variable that is addressed in your research questions and instrumentation should also be addressed in this section. If you are using observations/interviews, where and when will they take place? Will you video or audio record them? Human Participants Protections (2-3 pages) Human Participants Protections Explain how you ensured voluntary participation and informed consent. Explain anything you did to protect the participants in your research from potential harm (either physical, emotional, social, or financial), including protection of data recorded via paper, other media, and electronically. Describe additional approvals obtained to do the study, such as agency approval. Examine how power differentials between investigators and participants were examined and compensated for. For example, if you were interviewing employees at an agency, how did you guarantee that their responses would not impact their performance ratings? Include any documentation of approval and informed consent as an appendix. Ethics/Bias We all have biases; the most insidious are those of which we are unaware of do not acknowledge. What makes you different from the study participants? Is it race, ethnicity, social class, education, work experience, physical or mental ability, gender identify, sexual orientation, etc.? How might these differences impact your investigation? Explain how you examined your study to rule out the possibility of sampling bias (not giving everyone an equal chance to be in the study) and instrument bias (instruments not being understood in the same way by everyone, regardless of gender, race, ethnicity, etc.). If any sources of potential bias were present, identify them. If the bias was necessary to carry out the study (for example, if the study is only about children from low-income families), explain that. If you used qualitative data, address biases you might have had and how those might have affected your interpretation of your data. Limitations (1 page) The limitations inherent in any study usually relate to external validity and internal validity. External validity means the ability to generalize, or say that what you found also applies to other people/settings. The extent to which this is true depends on the degree to which your people/settings are like other people/settings. Address to whom your findings apply. Internal validity relates to your ability to infer causation, or say your intervention really caused the outcomes you saw. The major threat to internal validity is non-comparable control groups. Describe the extent to which your comparison group is like your intervention group and state the degree to which this impacts your ability of have confidence in your findings. If you are using qualitative data, explain any steps you will have taken to try to mitigate against untrustworthiness in your findings (for example, using one coder and doing member checking) and how those steps impact your confidence in your conclusions. Additional limitations may related to unexpected problems and how you corrected for them or would try to correct for them in the future. Other limitations may include measurement concerns – lack of validity or reliability, risk of social desirability effects or acquiescence biases, Hawthorne effects, low response rates, small sample sizes, and many others. Discussion (1-2 pages) Summarize what important findings could stem from your study. Explain what the results of your study might imply for practice, program development, and policy. What additional information would be necessary before making formal recommendations? What additional research questions would this bring to mind? What about if your intervention were not effective? What would you then recommend
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