Research adopted qualitative research design.

Concussion
Introduction
Incidences of concussion have for a very long time elicited various reactions from the players and the society at large. Concussion refers to a disturbance on the brain function as a result of an impact of a direct or indirect force to the head. Although the damage is usually invisible, after prolonged exposure to numerous incidences, CT and MRI scan usually show evidences of skull fractures and bleeding in certain sections of the brain. The resultant impact of this is usually cognitive, vision and balance problems, trouble sleeping and difficulties in remembering things (Halstead & Walter, 2010). Due to this severe consequences, it is, therefore, important that people become fully aware of what concussion is so that effective management or prevention techniques can be adopted. Consequently, because of the dangerous effects of concussion, those who have been diagnosed and found to suffer concussion should not be allowed to join their respective sports because this will result in worsening of the situation and thus leading to death.
Research Overview
In coming up with the articles, this research mainly adopted qualitative research design. The articles were collected from various academic databases such as Elsevier, Medline plus, pubmed, Ebscohost Academic research and Google scholar. These databases were preferred because they contain up to date, and peer reviewed articles. The credibility of the sources were thus unquestionable. In order to have up to date information, I filtered the journals based on their years of publication and preferred those which had been written 6 years ago apart from the book which was dated 2003. This ensures that one also receive current information. Consequently, another important consideration was the search term. In this case, i used terms such as concussion, prevention, and management of concussion and epidemiology of concussion. The database that was most helpful was pubmed and Elsevier because they provided unique information on concussion especially the medical aspects. The most difficult aspect of data collection related to selection of articles because the search produced more than 200 journal articles per sum.
Discussion Overview
Incidences of concussion are rampant in sports such as football, hockey, and boxing. On a yearly basis, there are more than 250000 cases reported (Cantrill, 2003). Because of the devastating impacts of concussion, there has been an existing debate on whether individuals who have suffered concussion should be allowed back to play when medical examinations have proven that their condition is not fatal. One side of the argument believe that provided scientific research has proved that the patient is safe, he or she should be allowed to rejoin their teams. Consequently, the other side of the divide believes that further exposure to high-speed games is likely to increase an individual’s susceptibility to getting even a more complicated case. As an alternative, this group prefer that those who have suffered the condition be refrained from further sporting activities in order to save their lives. Some of the articles that support banning of players who have been diagnosed for concussion include American medical society for sports medicine, Rowson article on helmet efficiency and Tator’s. Kaye’s article titled overview of concussion in sport, on the other hand, is refute the above stand. Beating in mind that lives are usually at stake when it comes to concussion, the adopted technique in its prevention should ensure that no life is lost and that there is optimum safety for the players while in the field.

Annotated Bibliography
Cantrill, S. V. (2003). Concussion in sports. In meeting of the ACEP Scientific Assembly, Boston, MA. Retrieved February (Vol. 13, p. 2009).
This book outlines how concussion often leads to loss of consciousness. It specifically states that in the United States alone there are about 200,000 concussions on a yearly basis and as a result, it is a serious concern that needs to be addressed appropriately. The author defines concussion as the pathophysiological process that affects the brain and causes traumatic forces. One of the ethical dilemmas that is covered in this article is whether athletes who have been sustained injuries should be allowed to join the field again. Other important information from this source is that the author acknowledges that concussions can occur in any sport but is enhanced with sports that involve high velocity.
The credibility of the articles is unquestionable because it is a scientific report from the American college of emergency physicians. Additionally, the author has included external sources to support some of his findings. This information is valid because it provides a lot of insight on some of the recommendations that can be adopted in treating concussions. The language used indicates that it is intended for general audience. It will, therefore, be used in this research to provide basic information on techniques that can be used to manage concussion. For example on, some basic requirements and guidelines such as return to play recommendations among others
Halstead, M. E., & Walter, K. D. (2010). Sport-related concussion in children and adolescents. Pediatrics, 126(3), 597-615.
This journal article investigates incidences of concussion in children and adolescents. It is evident that during this ages, these aggregates are prone to engage in certain games and behaviors that make them more susceptible to concussion. The author, therefore, states that concussion can cause social and family problems and also affect an individual’s participation in sports. It is because of this that Halstead and Walter believe that recognition and education into this topic is very important as this will reduce the risk and long term symptoms associated with the injury.
Being that this article has been published by a credible database and research website, it is credible. The authors have included adequate literature into about concussion. Its intended audience is the general public although it mainly target the parents. This source will be useful for the research because it will provide additional information about the causes, signs and symptoms and the psychological, economical and physical impact of concussion. It will be used to add more details on concussion’s preventive measures.
Harmon, K. G., Drezner, J. A., Gammons, M., Guskiewicz, K. M., Halstead, M., Herring, S. A., & Roberts, W. O. (2013). American Medical Society for Sports Medicine position statement: concussion in sport. British journal of sports medicine, 47(1), 15-26.
This article on sport medicine seeks to provide an evidence based practice or technique that can be adopted to assist physicians with the evaluation and management of injuries as is seen in concussion. Consequently, it establishes the level of evidence and knowledge gap in matters relating to concussions. The journal thus outlines some of the diagnosis techniques for concussion and also provide some of the standardized assessment tools. It thus states that some sports with the highest incidences of concussion include football, hockey, and soccer among others.
Being that it has been published by the American medical society for sport medicine, its credibility is unquestionable. Additionally, it is evident that with the detailed content that incorporates some physiological term, the article was intended to be used for research and related academic activities. In relation to my research topic, the article will be used to note some of the important assessment tools and evidence based approach to managing concussions in order to save lives.
Khurana, V. G., & Kaye, A. H. (2012). An overview of concussion in sport. Journal of Clinical Neuroscience, 19(1), 1-11.
This journal article by Khurana and Kaye provide an overview about concussions in sports. The authors begin by stating the definition of the term concussion. According to the Australian football league, every season, there are about seven injuries per team that are related to concussion. This article also incorporates he investigations, short term and potential complications of concussions and the treatment principles. Unlike the other sources, this is very complex and detailed because it identifies some types of proteins that also play critical role in the neurons distribution in the brain to bring about concussions.
Being that this article has been published by Elsevier and the authors are re-knotweed contributors in neuroscience, the article is very credible. This article will be used to provide more insight about the neurological basis of of concussion and the many physiological processes that usually occur following concussion. Unlike other sources, this sources is very precise to the the topic and also covers the medical aspects and what need to be done to ensure that there are minimal injuries sustained as a result of a concussion injury.
Rowson, S., Duma, S. M., Greenwald, R. M., Beckwith, J. G., Chu, J. J., Guskiewicz, K. M. & Maerlender, A. C. (2014). Can helmet design reduce the risk of concussion in football? Technical note. Journal of neurosurgery 120(4), 919-922.
This article acknowledge that football is the one sport that is mostly associated with concussions. One of the intervention that has often been used to minimize injury is the use of head helmets. This article, therefore, investigates the efficiency of helmet in reducing concussion. The researchers, therefore, conduct a retrospective analysis and data is collected from 1833 football players for a prolonged period of time. The result findings thus indicate that there is disparities in the ability of helmet to reduce concussion. Conclusively, it acknowledge that head helmets are not able to adequately prevent all concussions.
This article is credible because the authors has conducted their own studies. The quantitative data thus give an actual depiction of the matters in the ground. This source will be used to form an important case study and experiment for the research. Consequently, it is very useful because unlike others, it has adopted quantitative research design. It will be examining a very important case and thus seek to prove whether the use of helmet is efficient in concussion prevention.
Tator, C. (2012). Sport concussion education and prevention. J Clin Sport Psychol, 6, 293-301.
Tator in his article acknowledge that one of the most effective ways in managing concussion is through mass education especially for the players. According to this article, prevention is usually better than cure and by ensuring that every player gets the required information, there will be less cases of these injuries. The author state that education should be conducted by trained personnel. Among the recommendations suggested include avoiding incidences that increase an individual’s susceptibility to the injuries and ensuring that one wears proper protective gears. Consequently, the article calls for additional research on the topic.
This is a psychology research paper, and the author has included up to date information on concussion. Being that it is a recent article and the author has vast experience on the topic, this article is very credible. This article will be used alongside others stated above to provide some of the evidence based management and prevention techniques. Additionally, it will be used to identify some of the psychological impacts of concussion on the player and their families. Lastly, it is clear that by identifies how concussion affects the players emotionally and psychologically; effective management plan can be adopted.

References
Cantrill, S. V. (2003). Concussion in sports. In meeting of the ACEP Scientific Assembly, Boston, MA. Retrieved February (Vol. 13, p. 2009).
Halstead, M. E., & Walter, K. D. (2010). Sport-related concussion in children and adolescents. Pediatrics, 126(3), 597-615.
Harmon, K. G., Drezner, J. A., Gammons, M., Guskiewicz, K. M., Halstead, M., Herring, S. A., & Roberts, W. O. (2013). American Medical Society for Sports Medicine position statement: concussion in sport. British journal of sports medicine, 47(1), 15-26.
Khurana, V. G., & Kaye, A. H. (2012). An overview of concussion in sport. Journal of Clinical Neuroscience, 19(1), 1-11.
Rowson, S., Duma, S. M., Greenwald, R. M., Beckwith, J. G., Chu, J. J., Guskiewicz, K. M. & Maerlender, A. C. (2014). Can helmet design reduce the risk of concussion in football? Technical note. Journal of neurosurgery 120(4), 919-922.
Tator, C. (2012). Sport concussion education and prevention. J Clin Sport Psychol, 6, 293-301.

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