Development of structural engineering, since the industrial revolution several large development spurt occurred, resulting in over many masterpieces of outstanding engineers and beautiful. Since the subject is limited to the past century, for convenience, I described the range as defined since the early 20th century, used in construction of large-scale structure of new materials, including reinforced concrete, high-strength structural steel, cable, glass, film, modern industrial processing of wood sense. Scope of the discussion does not include constitutive relation to its mechanical properties of new materials, the relationship between the method of calculation, only focus on new materials and architecture relationship between the structure of the selection. In addition, I put in my limited range of areas more familiar structures do not involve other areas are not familiar with the structure of the bridge, tunnel construction, road construction, etc.
Thus, the problem is equivalent to a review of the relationship between material building structure since the early 20th-century building a structure between. Limited, can not be focused on the vital, only piece of a jigsaw, is divided into several sections talk about their own understanding, inappropriate, please correct me.
Reinforced concrete structures → Arts
Reinforced concrete appeared in the late 19th century, in the early 20th century used in large-scale structures, and quickly loved by the majority of structural engineers. Even in the 21st century, it seems, it is still reinforced concrete human can think of the most perfect architectural structural materials. Not just mechanical properties, durability, excellent economic performance, and more importantly, concrete unprecedented extremely excellent plasticity, so that humanity can finally complete the form of free-form structure. A variety of geometric shapes, as long as you want, and use wood, plastic, or steel to make a template, pouring concrete in which you can get the shape of the concrete structure. Structural design and sculpture boundaries become blurred, it is steel, wood, masonry materials almost never do.
From the early 1900s until the 1960s this time can be said to be the golden age of the development of reinforced concrete, many active in this period of “reinforced concrete poet” the art of the concrete structure onto a another peak. These include, but are not limited to, distinguished engineer to: Robert Mai Late, Eduard Torroja, Felix Candela, Owerri · Arup, Heinz Isla.
The figure is the most Felix Candela 1957 Aspen Design Rose Manan Tai Restaurant span 30 meters petal-shaped shell thickness is only 4 cm, the entire structure is called the immortal masterpiece of engineering history.
Below left Edward Torroja 1951 Design dodecahedron coal warehouse, fully reflects the plasticity of concrete structures.
Below right is Owerri · Arup (Arup’s founder, in fact, Arup Arup is the official name of his elegant translation of) in 1933 in cooperation with the architect 勒贝特 gold design London Zoo penguin pool, by two curved concrete slabs twisted metaphor penguins waddle naive.
Although these works of art is the province with concrete material itself but also great aesthetic value, but their biggest drawback is the need for a lot of labor, erection, steel mesh of complex layout templates, these steps must be completed on-site by hand, can not be industrialized operating. After the 1970s, with rising labor costs, construction costs soared this type of concrete structure in a competitive highly industrialized steel completely lost the economic advantages, gradually withdraw from the stage of history. Since the 1970s, in addition to Switzerland’s Heinz Isla still adhere to the concrete art of the last afterglow outside concrete housing almost disappeared. However, in recent years about Doug 施莱希 and other engineering researchers and engineers proposed to replace the traditional template with inflatable balloons, instead of the traditional quick-setting concrete spraying concrete technology, perhaps in the future can see the art of re-active in concrete stage structural engineering.
Separation of reinforced concrete and steel structural frame and the building → the sheath
Frame beams can be called representative architecture of the 20th century, this structure can not be achieved by the previous dominant masonry materials. Conceptual framework in the early 20th century, with the development and maturation of steel, reinforced concrete moment distribution method, D value method and other mechanical methods to calculate these two suitable materials rapidly in popularity. Significance of framework is to make the structure of the skeleton and the skin completely separate building, a certain sense, the structural engineer and the architect duties completely parted ways. For brick masonry structure, building skin and skeleton structure is actually the same thing, that is, those thick masonry walls. A frame structure, so that not only can improve the structural height, weight can be reduced, and more importantly, it makes the skin of the building completely liberated, no longer bear any structural role. This is a prerequisite for building a lot of creativity, but also a prerequisite for modern architecture of Le Corbusier five principles. Since then, the building can no longer be stereotyped brick wall. Which is the same framework, the outside skin can be arbitrary, glass, stone, brick, plastic, metal, wood, bamboo, mud, Lego … Almost any material can serve as building wall.
Top right is Casa Mila Gaudi designed in 1910, left in 1925, is the design of the Bund 12, HSBC Building, bottom right is the design in 2003, Tongji University School of Civil Engineering Building. Three look very different, but the meaning is the same structure are steel frame. Remove the Casa Mila fantasy style façade, magnificent HSBC building facades, Tongji civil floor plate and glass facades, the rest of the skeleton of the structure is almost the same.
Although Kunio Watanabe such as engineers believe that this hidden skeleton structure is a dishonest practice of design, but overall, it has created the appearance of the building we see today flourishing situation.
→ high strength concrete high-rise building
1930s New York high-rise building in a blowout of the product development, the Chrysler Building, the Empire State Building is the golden age. But the potential of these steel frame structures limited the height of the Empire State Building has this type of structure is the limit. With 60 years Faraz Khan tube structure propose a new concept of high-rise buildings was officially entered the era of super-tall.
Sears Tower and the World Trade Center twin towers in New York, are steel cylinder, although high performance structure, but weak industrial base for non-European countries, it may still be too expensive. It came into being high-strength concrete, both to meet the needs of tubular structures, while maintaining a low cost structure, and truly let high-rise building on a global scale everywhere. Shanghai Pudong Lujiazui Jinmao Tower and World Financial Center, are typical of the concrete cylinder. Inside a huge barrel of high-strength concrete, external 8 or 4 giant columns, together with the strengthening layer and the peripheral zone overhanging truss trusses, these constitute the main force of the super high-rise system. Including Taipei 101, Petronas Twin Towers in Malaysia, as well as large quantities of similar high-rise building, it is true. As a milestone in structural engineering, Burj Dubai is also used in 828-meter-high concrete beam tube plus fishbone wing wall system. Strength grade C80 concrete for C100 and even more, so that high-rise building is no longer out of reach.
High-strength structural steel structure surreal →
With the development of architectural thought, architectural semantics, context undergone dramatic changes, there have been many unprecedented design. I used the “surreal structure” is the word to refer to similar CCTV new building, nest, this novel structure of the Shenzhen Stock Exchange. 1940s to 1950s heyday concrete shell, now it is the era of spatial steel lattice structure. Modern high-strength structural steel, appears in various forms in the building structure, one of the stunning design from blueprint to reality.
Top left is a CCTV new building Cecil Balmond as Rem Koolhaas surgeon, commonly known as “big pants”, the cost of other factors aside, landscape, social impact, from a single building structure, it is an unprecedented attempt. Its mesh facade also its lateral force resisting steel cylinder, grid layout arrangement and adjustment according to the stress distribution, plus Siamese body tilt binoculars large boom, before put, no one dared to imagine such a building structure .
Top right is a new building Shenzhen Stock Exchange Cecil Balmond where Arup Koolhaas surgeon, general volume cantilever, is a surreal vision.
Below left is Cecil Balmond as Toyo Ito (this year the Pritzker Architecture Prize winner) of Serpentine Gallery surgeon, incredible steel grid system.
Below right Sendai Media Center is Toyo Ito’s masterpiece, is also a surreal steel. Mu Lang Sasaki its cooperation designed steel tube bundle and steel honeycomb floor, similar processes to build a house of shipbuilding, which is unthinkable in the past.
→ cable tensegrity system
From the mechanical concept, the axial tension and compression efficiency even more than in bending, but not before almost masonry material tensile properties. With such a material having a strong cable tension capacity appears, all the members are holding architecture axial stress state become a reality. This is the first proposed by Buckminster Fuller proposed the so-called tensegrity system (known fullerene is to commemorate him).
Left in the works of American artist Kenneth Snelson Needle Tower is a work of art tensegrity system. Right about Doug Shi Laixi designed Rostock exhibition flag tower as well.
In practical engineering, about Doug 施莱希 of 施梅豪 Mori nuclear power plant cooling towers and cable network group Roxy Tower Hill are examples of cable net tensioning system. At left is the cable net Shimei Hao Sen nuclear power plant cooling tower, built in 1974, 1991 and ceased operations because the station was destroyed. Shi Laixi very sorry and regret, after ten years, the energetic efforts 施莱希, the right of this cable network Tower in Stuttgart completed. On the one hand is to contribute to a harmonious society in Germany, on the other hand can be seen as 施莱希 before they have been removed masterpiece strong reminiscence and commemoration.
Even in the local conventional architecture can also be applied tensioning system, the most common is the string beam system, such as large span Pudong Airport Terminal, is used in beam string. With the rise of high-speed rail construction boom, some new high-speed rail station also uses a beam string.
Glass + cable network cable net glass system →
In a sense, the building is a manipulation of light art. Glass is the perfect material to complete this mission, as early as the medieval cathedral, stained glass has begun to serve as an extremely important role. But subject to the mechanical properties of the glass itself, and its application has been a lot of restrictions.
With the development of modern steel mature, even by a thin metal frame is a metal frame with a cable net glass curtain wall composed of glass dome or be achieved. The most familiar example is IM Pei’s Louvre Pyramid should. Doug 施莱希 about a large number of works are called boutique cable net glass systems, such as the image above Hamburg City History Museum and the glass roof in the figure below Kempinski Hotel in Munich glass curtain wall.
Film material → membrane structure / inflatable structure
One of the many outstanding new materials of the 20th century is the emergence of film material, although in the past there are similar concepts membrane materials and membrane structure, such as nomadic yurt, but its performance and durability are not satisfactory. The advent of modern film material for modern lightweight construction design provides a new choice. Frei Otto and about Doug Shi Laixi Design 1972 Munich Olympic Stadium is a masterpiece of modern film structure.
In addition, the membrane material also for the realization of the inflatable structure provides an excellent material. Inflatable structures can be divided into two kinds. The first is a pneumatic structure as the main structure, such as the figure above Kawaguchi Wei Design 1970 Expo in Osaka, Japan Fuji Museum, is a typical pneumatic structure. Everyday life a variety of common business activities placed inflatable arches, also be seen as such a pneumatic structure. The second is as a pneumatic structure of the local structure, such as the Water Cube ETFE membrane inflatable bubble facade. Water Cube for the pursuit of such special visual effects, glass, plastic and other traditional materials are not suitable, inflatable membrane may be able to reach such a perfect hazy design intent.
Modern industrial wood frame wood →
Wood is a long history of building construction materials. In our country mainly in the form Chuandou framework exists, pioneer of the kind in North America is built by piling logs of small wooden houses. With the establishment of the modern timber industry, further processing of natural timber similar standardization of steel “type wood” and other glued wood, wood composites, wood utilization efficiency and range of applications has been greatly improved. Especially the so-called industry-standard 2-by-4 system in North America has become the absolute mainstream of over 80% of North American residential wood shear wall systems are based on industry-standard timber.
Mechanical properties of wood, though not very prominent, but its strength is higher than the opposite quality, compression and tensile properties mean that, there are certain ductility, can be seen as a weakening of the overall steel. From that point, the steel timber can reach similar results.
On the eve of World War II, Nazi Germany because crazy preparing, folk metal resources shortage, engineers can use wood instead of steel, a height of 164 meters amazing ability of German engineers figure above the communications tower located in Ismaning, this pure wood structure unbelievable.
Pictured on contemporary German engineer about Doug Shi Laixi 2002 Design Rostock exhibition hall, wooden structure, spatial grid tube shell, with steel lattice shell space comparable, but has a special beauty of wood brought.
Rubber / mild steel material → Energy Dissipation means
With the development of design theory, design ideas and guidelines are changing, such as for seismic design, has been converted Energy Dissipation Devices “skillfully deflected the question” from masonry “Yingkang.” With the advent of modern rubber, soft steel such suitable materials, energy dissipation shock absorbers really began large-scale applications in Seismic Design. Such as base isolation technology in Japan has been a considerable degree of application, that is, the whole building structure is not in contact with the soil, all the pillars fall rubber mat. DAMPER mild steel, rubber and other viscous material, energy, etc. are also made to support a wide range of applications.
to sum up
Materials and forms one of the two sides are structural engineering, indispensable. Rare genius Leonardo da Vinci conceived a lot of novel and reasonable design in human history, but was limited to a material level, many are unable to put into practice, can only remain on paper; Similarly, we have reinforced concrete, but If there is no matching new rational design theory, or stay in pine with concrete Wall, base pyramid level, modern architectural structure that would be impossible.
In fact, not just structural engineering, mechanical engineering, aeronautical engineering, industrial engineering, and other fields, too, only the joint development of materials and design theory application in order to obtain new engineering achievement.
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