¬To what extent does the display affect the narrative and conversely how does the narrative affect the display.
In 2012 Moma decisively made the controversial decision to exhibit 12 video games. To the public this was a big leap in the history of the art world, because yet again the definition of exhibit able art was put into light. To Moma ‘The games are selected as outstanding examples of interaction design—a field that MoMA has already explored and collected extensively, and one of the most important and oft-discussed expressions of contemporary design creativity. Our criteria, therefore, emphasize not only the visual quality and aesthetic experience of each game, but also the many other aspects—from the elegance of the code to the design of the player’s behavior—that pertain to interaction design.‘ Video games as narrative pieces of media proved to be worthy of exhibition in the nature of their installation whatever. As a result, the extent to which the display in its ability to facilitate the narrative and conversely the nature of the narrative to affect the display could be showcased as a discourse in the history of installations. The importance of Momas decision is just a stepping stone in the way technology and media challenged our perception of what installations can be and where.
This essay seeks to look into…
cognitively challenging the display, the user and the way they interact with the screen because one screen is not enough anymore.
instead of the screen being part of the room, the screen becomes the room, something that redefines the room.
1st introduce eames.. 7 screens (challenged)
Eames was dealing with ergonomics and the fact that he involved himself in the exhibition of narrative by challenging the display as medium of multiple screens implies his take on the display to him was seen as a highly intractable media. The first public multi-media presentation Charles Eamse held was in the United States as a rough sketch for a hypothetical course in 1953. The aim was to replace conventional lectures with new teaching techniques, compromising of three concurrent slide images, films, a narrator, a large board of printed visual information, soundm and complenentary smells piped through the ventilation system. Eames wanted to “heighten the awareness”
“the first public multi-media presentation in the United States, delivered in 1953 as a Rough Sketch for Sample Lesson for a Hypothetical Course”
“the aim was to replace the conventional lectures with new teaching techniques, including three concurrent slide images, films, a narrator, a large board of printed visual information, sound, and complementary smells piped through the ventilation system.”
the ideas behind the presentation seem to have come mostly from George nelson and Charles Emes
Eames “we wanted to heighten awareness”
The Eameses’ sections, Communications Process and Communications Methods, were based on the belief on what the individual brings to the experience of receiving.’
the world of commerce sponsored the Eameses’ most exciting educational films, multimedia presentations, and exhibitions”
Glimpses of the USA the most famous of the Eamses’ multi screen presentations (commissioned by the US Department of state for a major exhibition to be held in Moscow in 1959 as part of a “cultural exchange”
commission came indirectly via George Nelson the designer of the exhibition
In (19..) Emes challenged the execution of narrative by categorizing the way we perceive display by pre-conceptualizing a movie on multiple displays rather that one.
2nd introduce second example like Eames but challenges more that eye (senses)
This followed by the first type of multimedia device in the form of an interactive theatre experience, devised by Morton Heilig, and known as the ‘Sensorama’. This early form of virtual reality was invented in 1957 but was not patented until 1962.
The Sensorama consisted on the following elements:
• A viewing screen within an enclosed booth which displayed stereoscopic images.
• Oscillating fans
• Audio output (speakers)
• Devices which emitted smells
The viewer would sit on a rotating chair which enabled them to face this screen. They would be shown these stereoscopic images which gave the illusion of depth and the ability to view something from different angles.
The sensorama was one of the earliest examples of multi-sensory, immersive VR. It was something of an experiment at the time, and was too far advanced for available technology or interest.
It was created by a man called Morton Heilig, and who because of its creation, is sometimes referred to as “The Father of VR”.
Born in 1926, in the United States, Heilig studied philosophy at the University of Chicago. In 1950 he obtained a degree in film direction at the Centro Experimentale di Cinema in Rome, then in 1958 he completed a master’s course in communication arts at the University of Pennsylvania, USA. All this set him up for the creation of his baby, just four years later.
Hellig had always been fascinated at how machinery might be able to simulate how human experience their surroundings. After the Masters degree, Heilig pursued his fascination as his main research direction. Inspired by 3-D movies and Cinerama, Hellig sought to stimulate many senses at once in an artificial environment.
In 1962, Heilig presented the multisensorial Sensorama which combined film, audio effects, vibrations, air movements, and scents. The image above, is from the patent for that device, attempting to label out all the various functions. Sadly, whilst that patent, number 3050870 in the US patent office still exists, the patent has never been digitised.
Built inside a booth, in which visitors could sit on a movable stool, Heilig imagined that, for the price of 25 US cents, visitors would be treated to multi-sensorial impressions of a virtual, ten-minute-long motorcycle ride through New York City. Sensorama would display the sights and sounds of the prototype film, whilst simultaneously giving the user the corresponding vibrations, thanks to the integrated stool, head movements, thanks to the helmet-like head receptacle, and rushes of scented wind, thanks to inbuilt fans.
The Sensorama’s technology may have been primitive, but in concept, it draws peer to peer with the most powerful modern systems. Hellig believed that by expanding cinema to involve not only sight and sound, but also taste, touch, and smell, the traditional fourth wall of film and theatre would dissolve, transporting the audience into a habitable, virtual world.
He called this cinema of the future “experience theatre.”
In concept, it is akin to SimStim, just 20 years before that concept was even dreamed of. Experiencing the world through the eyes of another person, every sense being what they are perceiving.
Sadly, Hellig passed away in 1997, aged just 71 years, just at the start of the dot com boom – when mainstream VR was taking off for the first time. He never got to see his passion for VR finally become realised.
The Sensorama was a machine that is one of the earliest known examples of immersive, multi-sensory (now known as multimodal) technology. Morton Heilig, who today would be thought of as a “multimedia” specialist, in the 1950s saw theater as an activity that could encompass all the senses in an effective manner, thus drawing the viewer into the onscreen activity. He dubbed it “Experience Theater”, and detailed his vision of multi-sensory theater in his 1955 paper entitled “The Cinema of the Future” (Robinett 1994). In 1962 he built a prototype of his vision, dubbed the Sensorama, along with five short films for it to display. Predating digital computing, the Sensorama was a mechanical device, which still functions today.
Howard Rheingold (in his 1992 book Virtual Reality) spoke of his trial of the Sensorama using a short film piece that detailed a bicycle ride through Brooklyn, created in the 1950s, and still seemed quite impressed by what it could do more than 40 years later. The Sensorama was able to display stereoscopic 3-D images in a wide-angle view, provide body tilting, supply stereo sound, and also had tracks for wind and aromas to be triggered during the film. Oddly enough in hindsight, Heilig was unable to obtain financial backing for his visions and patents, and so the Sensorama work was halted. Today, it remains primarily a curiosity in the history of Virtual Reality.
3rd head mounted display
Head mounted display (Ivan Sutherland first head display)
the evolution of being developed inside the digital world
About Microsoft HoloLens
Microsoft HoloLens is a wearable, self-contained holographic computer. The device features a see-through, holographic display and advanced sensors that map the physical environment. HoloLens enables users to interact with 3D holograms blended into the real world. In this Mixed Reality environment, users can pin holograms to physical objects and interact with data using GGV (gesture, gaze and voice) commands.
Between Reality and Virtuality
Mixed Reality (MR) spans the purely virtual and purely real environments. In the context of the building industry, this is the phase in which digital and real content co-exist, where architectural design collides with reality, and where construction teams transform digital content into physical objects.
create an exhibition where the user can walk around a space experiencing all different
What is display?
how the media is presented as a 2dimensional entity
Early artistic examples of virtual reality
An example of this is large, 360 degree murals which enabled the observer to engage with the artwork on a simple level. Further artistic examples could be found in the avant-garde work of French playwright Antonin Artaud who considered illusion and reality to be one and the same. He argued that a theatre audience should suspend their disbelief and consider the performance to be reality.
Morton Heilig was a cinema visionary, American cinematographer, theorist and inventor. In his 1955 essay, “The Cinema of the Future,” he spoke about how all senses would be stimulated in the future – not just sound and vision. He was inspired by the ultra-widescreen Cinerama and 3D formats believing them to be the next logical step in motion picture presentation.
Many of Heilig’s ideas did not attract Hollywood funding so he chose to develop the Sensorama Simulator himself.
The two minute films cost 25 cents to view and were played on a loop. They consisted of a series of journeys, including a motorcycle ride through Brooklyn (complete with seat vibrations mimicking the motor of the bike, the smell of baking pizza and voices of people walking down sidewalks – you can see the Pan-Am building, symbolic of the era) and a view of a belly-dancer (with whiffs of perfume). The other titles were DUNE BUGGY, HELICOPTER and A DATE WITH SABINA all of which he produced, directed and edited. Phsical effects were activuated by trigger points by a magnetic strip on the doublewide film.
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Howard Rheingold, in his 1991 book Virtual Reality: Exploring the Brave New Technologies, described his own usage of the Sensorama, 30 years after its invention:
“By virtue of its longevity, it was a time machine of sorts. I sat down, put my hands and eyes and ears in the right places, and peered through the eyes of a motorcycle passenger at the streets of a city as they appeared decades ago. For thirty seconds, in southern California, the first week of March, 1990, I was transported to the driver’s seat of a motorcycle in Brooklyn in the 1950s. I heard the engine start. I felt a growing vibration through the handlebar, and the 3D photo that filled much of my view came alive, animating into a yellowed, scratchy, but still effective 3D motion picture. I was on my way through the streets of a city that hasn’t looked like this for a generation. It didn’t make me bite my tongue or scream aloud, but that wasn’t the point of Sensorama. It was meant to be a proof of concept, a place to start, a demo. In terms of VR history, putting my hands and head into Sensorama was a bit like looking up the Wright Brothers and taking their original prototype out for a spin.”
About movie scene
Movie theater attendance plunged in 2014, hitting numbers that haven’t been this low since 1995. To add insult to injury, the sharpest decline occurred amongst the 14-24 age group. Cinema is dying. What can the industry do to swing back up?
It’s a tough question. Personally, I’ve been to my local movie theater twice over the past five years and the experience was so poor that I have no intention of going back without a big change in how theaters operate.
In their current state, they provide no value to me. I find much more value in streaming services like Netflix, Hulu Plus, and Amazon Instant Video because they’re cheap, easy, and convenient. For those happy to dabble in morally gray areas, torrents are always an option, too.
Ultimately, movie theaters need to stop competing on “convenience” and start focusing on “experience.” They need to offer more than just a way of watching the latest movies. Here are some ideas that might work to add value to the whole experience.
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