What are the 5 basic requirements a memory management system is intended to satisfy?Explain

The Book:

“Operating Systems Internals and Design principles” by William Stallings

(8th Edition or 7th or 6th Ed)


This is an online version of the 6th edition:



Task B (7 marks) 

Please properly answer the following questions. The text book is your reference. You can paraphrase the sentences in the text book, but you are not allowed to literally copy sentences word by word. Please keep your answers concise, meaningful, yet self-contained. After reading your answer to a question, one should have basic understanding without referring any other sources.

Reading the textbook to build up a comprehensive understanding of the content is essential in this unit. This task attempts to encourage you to read. Therefore, there are many small questions with the answers directly obtainable from the textbook. The page numbers where to find the answer are listed after each question.


  1. What are the 5 basic requirements a memory management system is intended to satisfy (just the words/phrases, no need to expand, 6th: p. 312)?
  2. What is (memory) internal fragmentation (6th: p 318)? What is (memory) external fragmentation (6th: p320)?
  3. What is a page and what is a page frame, and do they have to be at the same size (6th: p 326)?
  4. What is a page table used for, and how many page tables an OS may have (6th: p 326)?
  5. What is thrashing (6th p. 349)? Given all the best effort by an OS, thrashing sometimes may still happen. What could be the situation (hint: high memory demand, and not enough physical memory)?
  6. What are the 2 common fetch policies (6th: p 366)?
  7. What is frame locking, and why do we need it (6th: p 368)?
  8. List the 4 replacement algorithms in the text book (6th: p 368).
  9. What are the 2 paramount objectives in designing I/O facilities (6th: p 501).
  10. What is the RAID technique (6th: p515)?
  11. What are the 5 basic file organizations 6th: p558)?
  12. What are the 3 issues involved in file allocation? (6th: p570)

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