What are these three phases and how have these societal values shaped American police activities and structures since the emergence of public police force? What were/are the consequences (if any) of these policing phases either intended or unintended?

Please answer ONE of the following questions in essay form. Your answer should be no more than five (5) pages in length, and must be completed in strict APA format (12 pt. Times New Roman font, double spaced throughout the entire paper, with one inch margins). Do NOT include outside sources, instead rely solely on the assigned readings and lecture. Essays will be evaluated using the rubric indicated on the syllabus and will be due November 29.

1. Police occupy a central and unique position in American society. They are accorded considerable legal authority to ensure collective security, but must balance this need with individual rights (enumerated in the Bill of Rights). Police practices and organization are a product of this balancing act, with competing societal values determining the activities and structure of policing. Scholars have identified three distinct phases in the development of American public policing that have been a response to shifting societal values. What are these three phases and how have these societal values shaped American police activities and structures since the emergence of public police force? What were/are the consequences (if any) of these policing phases either intended or unintended?

2. Bureaucracy has become the dominant form of social organization within police departments for its promise to control police behavior. The early structures and processes adopted during the professional phasethat largely persist todaywere informed by a theory of human motivation and a particular view of the organization that have been challenged and modified in recent years. This emerging theory of human motivation and view of the organization (with respect to its external environment) has implications for police administration. In fact, each of these competing theories and views hold different assumptions regarding human motivation and perspectives regarding the factors that shape agency performance. Identify and explain the competing theories of human motivation and views of the agency, while describing the implications that these assumptions/views have for police administration.

3. Police misconduct is as old as the institution itself. Since the creation of a public police force, the institution has witnessed various levels and types of misconduct that have changed over time. To better understand the sources and implications of this misconduct for the effectiveness and quality of public policing, scholars have identified several varieties that can be distinguished according to officer motivation and conduct. Identify and explain these varieties of misconduct and the distinguishing motivations and behaviors of officers that characterize each type. In your opinion, is any one type more detrimental to the effectiveness and quality of public policing? If so, which and why? If not, why not?

we are not required to use any outside sources but we can. The primary source we are suppose to use is policing in america, Gaines Kappeler. It has to be quick and straight to the point.

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