Case study

Case study


Anemia is commonly associated with low red blood cells or haemoglobin in the body. Its impact is felt by both children and adults although it is common among girls and women who attend to the menstruation. Anemia   can be classified into six major types based on the causes and the symptoms. They include  anemia caused by Iron deficiency, deficiency of B-12, chronic lead poisoning, chronic red blood cell destruction , increased red blood cell destruction and sickle cell anemia . According to the symptoms given on the condition of Ms. A, there is a great probability that she is suffering from low iron anemia. This paper is meant to explain Ms. A,s anemic condition .

The symptoms making her subjective to the condition include increased shortness of breath; she had suffered from menorrhagia and low levels of energy and enthusiasm more often than usual, which gets worse during her menses. Dysmenorrhea is another characteristic which identifies Ms. A with other approximately 50% of menstruating women who statistics provides experiences iron deficiency anemia. Dysmenorrhea may be classified as either primary or secondary. Primary dysmenorrhea is mainly associated with the hormonal changes which have a connection with the menstrual period, although the exact cause is uncertain. The hematocrit for normal females is at least 35.9 % but for those with iron deficiency anemia aging above 18 registers a value less than that as with the case of Ms. A who has  32.0%. She has a lower mean cellular volume (MCV) of 1.5% indicating the symptom of an anemia characterized by erythrocytes that are smaller and lesser amount in hemoglobin in addition to the observed peripheral smear or blood slide showing small, oval-shaped cells which look like microcytic and hypochromic cells. Another problem she is facing is feeling of light-headed when at high, mountainous places or when she stands up.

The observed Manorrhagia, which is defined as excessive menstrual loss, is said to be prevalent gynecological problem among women who have had an experience of bleeding disorders Lee, Berntorp & Hoots, 2011).  There is a high frequency of incidence of menorrhagia as well as poor management of menstrual loss. This often led to chronic iron-deficiency anemia. Loss of large amounts of blood loss is the major cause of iron deficiency anemia in women above the age of 18. In this case study, Ms A has been taking aspirin every three to four hours every time she has her menses for six days, and when playing golf to avoid “stiffening of joints’ as she says. According to research, aspirin and anti-inflammatory drugs classified as non-steroidal can cause significant gastrointestinal bleeding despite being taken when taken in low doses.

Through research and experience, athletes who take part in endurance training, particularly, young adult especially adolescent females, stand a high chance of developing iron deficiency anemia even without predisposing factors to anemia (Anderson & McLaren, 2012). There is reduction of serum iron status due to expansion of the mass of red blood cell. This case study is an illustration of this scenario where Ms. A regularly uses aspirin to relieve pain during strenuous exercises although it is a corrosive drug. Another important indication for this anemia is the reduced reticulocyte content of hemoglobin. Also, the respiratory rate coupled with low blood pressure, the elevated heart rate and increased temperature point to the struggle of the body to increase the flow of oxygen to the cell.





Anderson, G. J. & McLaren, G. D. (2012). “Iron Physiology and Pathophysiology in Humans”.

New York: Springer Science

Lee, C., Berntorp, E. & Hoots, K. (2011). “A Textbook of Hemophilia (2nd ed.”. New York: John

Wiley & Sons




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