Evaluation of Effectiveness the Human Resource Development in Public Authority of Aviation.

HRD Evaluation in Public Authority of Aviation
1. Summary of the research project

1.1 Setting the research in context

Evaluation is an emerging discipline that was invented by Stanley and Campbell; both were responsible for creating awareness of the distinction between quasi-experiment and experiment. The two inventors meant it popular to the entire world and led many people applying it. Over a span of years, the discipline has developed and evolved plus it applies to various practices and policies, organization, individuals and team. It forms the major strategy planning process, Human Resource Development, individual practice and organization development practices. Some people argue that there minute things to be evaluated (Werner & DeSimone, 2011). One expert, when explaining the area covered by a research of what can be evaluated, declared everything. Someone can start at the beginning of a dictionary and evaluate the context appropriately (Rao, 2000). While taking into consideration against the all-embracing view, it is clear that evaluation of one type or another has a key to play in human resource development at a range of levels as a team, individual, division, nation and sectorial, along with a range of tactical, strategic and operational activities.
It is important to know the reason as to why we do evaluation, in some occasion it is because we want to, that is we are legally forced by some agreement to perform an evaluation. It is the same case as providing a resource and you want to know the status of spending money involved in such resource like whether the money has created a difference, how has it been spend, and if the money has been used elsewhere wisely (Rao, 2000). The best way to impose utility and value in an HRD intervention is by demonstrating the impacts. Evaluation can be performed also because you want to upgrade the design of program, practices, and the policies and also to learn from experience. There are reasons for evaluation; however, it may be done after you have thought and there might be no realization for the evaluation which has been designed well and implemented from what has been gained.
1.2 The aims and objectives of the research
The research study aims to identify current practices of Omani Public Authority of Aviation sector in the light of a unified framework adapted from developed country’s models of HRD, and to identify means of improving private sector HRD in the Sultanate of Oman. Data sets will be extracted from the specific country with a well-organized HRD model detailing the effectiveness of the HRD in the Public Authority of Aviation (Werner & DeSimone, 2011).
1.3 Research Questions
Incorporating a multidimensional assessment technique in the present study facilitated answering of a variety of questions concerning Human Resource Development (HRD) effectiveness in the Public Authority of Aviation. Evaluating HRD on various levels is accomplished by probing feedback stakeholders’ response as well as analyzing the outcome of previous research work that have been carried out with respect to the Public Authority of Aviation (Werner & DeSimone, 2011). Specifically, this study focused on the following questions:
What are do aviators say about the effectiveness of the Human Resource Development in Public Authority of Aviation?
What is the existing Human Resource Development in the Public Authority of Aviation?
What are the setbacks encountered by the HRD in Public Authority of Aviation?
What are the advantages of HRD in the Public Authority of Aviation?

1.4 The significance of the study
The findings from the study will be useful in the general betterment of micro level HRD positively contributing to the achievement of the strategic national goal of Omanization (replacing expatriate workers with trained Omani Personnel) as well as helping in improving the efficiency of educational system seeking to enhance human resource development. It would also be a significant contribution to the accuracy of macro level planning, which presently is mainly top-down. HRD at the organization level will provide bottom-up feedback upon which a sound educational policy can be built (Werner & DeSimone, 2011). The search strategy that this study utilizes will be a collection of primary data through questionnaires, reading of academic journals and books. In addition to this, this study also seeks to conduct an online search over the internet and the available online academic sources. The significance of the study lies in its being the first general survey of the practices of HRD in the Omani Public Authority of Aviation. Such studies exist, but they mainly focus on the investigation of a single issue such HRD. Thus, the above situation requires a more comprehensive study. A broader study of this sort is important as it can highlight areas upon which more case studies that are specific should be focused in future.
2. Critical Literature Review
2.1. Human Resources Development
Presently, human asset administration (HRM) is associated with generation utilization of both private decision and general population and this entails staff administration which was put in utilization recently (Koike, 1997). HRM rose in USA in the year 1990s which was evolved as a result of difficulties experienced in an organization. The utilization was practiced to meet the theory, strategies, practice, and connection of systems to the individual administration in the company (Werner & Desimone, 2011). HRM differs in meaning according to the writing, like in 1996 it was characterised as a way of dealing with occupation administration unmistakably to accomplish upper part via vital organization of an exceptional workforce which is fit and dedicated, by the use of incorporated utilization exhibiting individual, auxiliary, and social systems. The important sections in human asset administration are; execution evaluation, preparing and advancement, enlistment and determination, and maintenance and remuneration (Desimone & Harris, 2002).
Execution evaluation acts as a tool to assess the execution in the representation and also in the association. This is widely utilized in the association for both private division and in the general society (Delahaye, 2015). The purpose of this paper is in whole concerns preparatory and advancement. In enlistment and determination it entails the procedure used to pick and recognise an individual who can work towards meeting a prerequisite of HR in an organisation. While in maintenance and remuneration it composes of practices, strategies, and procedure which are used to make compensation of the workers in the organization (Joy-Mathew & Surteel, 2004). Prize framework for representative compensation is subdivided per the skills of the worker, commitment, and ability in the worker.
Human Resource Development (HRD)
Human resource development is section of Human Resource Management which deals with advancement measures. According to Swart & Price (2012), this is an indispensable piece of HRM which contains the basic components of the capacity of HRM in the association and helps in determination of the maximum capacity of the person. Human resource development analysis the utilization of following: association improvement, vocation improvement, and preparing and improvement to improve the viability of the authority and the individual (Reid &Brown, 2004). There are three exercises performed in perfecting the HRD which are preparing, instruction, and improvement.
These exercises help in determining qualities, abilities, and states of mind to adjust to vital change. Working responsibility and preparing and improvement is set by staff arrangement and enrollment, associated advancement, and staff advantages (Rao, 2000). Preparing and improvement increases the intensity of association, helping and administration of the people, and supporting the nature of the items to achieve profession targets. Some associations reward representatives by sending them on the projects preparatory for the new ability procurement and advancement of the association (Tarraeo, 2005).
According to Armstrong (1996), training describes the thoughtful adjustment of behaviour through comprehension, which is a result of instruction, drill, improvement and organized familiarity. Training is an important element as far as productive progression of the human resource is concerned as it guarantees various types of success within any given organization. There are three major motivations towards seeking advancement in any given organization; to improve execution of individual responsibilities, to meet future requirements of the human resource department, and ensure that new employees get acquainted with their roles within the organization as fast as possible (Wentland 2007). Some benefits of training employees include increased work flexibility in the sense that training improves the skills set of the human resource, enabling it to participate in a variety of tasks and responsibilities.
Roberts (2015) asserts thatgreater self-belief and motivation makes the human resource rely less on management and supervision. Research on training of employees in developed democracies indicate that institutions with lower staff turnover spend most on training and staff education. Regulating staff turnover is of great benefit to the organization; staff replacement is expensive procedure– talents are lost, assets are disrupted and enlisting new personnel consumes time and money that would be invested in other departments within the organization to increase profitability and efficiency of any given organization (Dhar 2015). Trained human resource is likely to pledge their futures to the given organization.
As per Johannessen & Olsen (2003) training also improves staff attitude and work morale; human resource with an array of sills is generally more contented with and positive about their responsibilities within any given organization. This minimizes chances of occurrence of work related stress and improves the overall work environment. Training also provides a perfect opportunity for the employer to know their staff better, and the staff to establish a better working relationship with the management. This provides a conducive working environment that would see greater profitability and efficiency of the organization.
Phases of preparing system
There are four fundamental phases of preparing projects that comprises; identification of preparation needs, definition of preparation targets and plan of system, implementation programs and preparation of conveyance and finally evaluation preparation. According to Chalofsky, Rocco & Morris, Identification of preparing needs entails recognition of the necessary human resource based needs of an organization that need to addressed and adequate preparation put in place (2014) Some of the common preparing needs of any organization includes interviews, surveys, perception, documentation and centre gatherings (Noe, 2005). Definition of preparing targets and plan of system is another important subsequent step after identifying preparing needs that entails preparation of destinations that recognizes abilities that should be incorporated in setting targets to be realised through an appropriate plan system (Torrington and Huat, 1994). Thirdly implementation programs and preparation of conveyance is the climax of the all preparing system, where the initial targets are put into action and the intended preparation passed onto the workers. Evaluation of the whole preparing system is the ultimate step of preparing system to ascertain if the preparation targets were met and any adjustments that need to be made (Noe, 2005).
2.2 Importance of human resource development
Every institution needs to be mindful of how organizational associates perceive training packages. Besides, a drilling program needs to analyse those who require training, as well as considering whether the training program is mandatory or not. Training is one method of overseeing human resource development Gilley, Eggland, & Gilley 2002). To ensure sufficient training, the institution must guarantee the employees what they need. There are various means through which training can be carried out in any organization; one of the ways of presenting training to the workers is through subcontracting an instructor. In the event an organization hires an external trainer to facilitate employee training, there are costs sustained. Therefore, to evade expenditure a lot of training must be done through in-house drilling. In-house training describes a condition in which an employee(s) with exceptional ability train the other staff members. In this type of training, the employee doubling up as the trainer may be given an incentive for training other employees. In the end, the money the company spends on training will be lower than that it would have spent on hiring a trainer. In-house training also avails to the employees a chance interacting with each other thus encouraging the establishment of a decent working association among employees. This ensures that the duties assigned to them are accomplished as fast as possible. Timely accomplishment of tasks provides the organization stands a chance of realizing high returns.
Huselid (1995) articulated that macroeconomic explorations: movements and manageability of human transfers are as ancient as humankind is; nonetheless, in the globalized world organizations there is a propensity to be more vital. Remarkably, relocation has reflective personal, financial and social or even political consequences for the mover, the setting and the region of destination. Swarajyalaxmi (2005) explains that transfer of inspiration goes before the transfer of action despite the fact that certain work motivation concepts show that transfer of action precedes transfer of motivation and the coefficients range between 0.04 and 0.63. Additionally, the plethora of assessed variables concerning motivation transfer requires organization and structuring.
Development of human resource is essential for any organization as it ensures the effective adaptation of the human resource to the organization’s external environment. It helps develop competent and result oriented workforce that is an essential factor for any competent organization. HRD facilitates knowledge and skill enhancement of the human resource through training and other development initiatives. Additionally, Human Resource Development avails the opportunity for career enhancement of the workforce through grasping knowledge and skills provided during training. Professional development entails development personal strengths during training and synchronizing them with employee requirements. Trained and efficient human resource are dedicated to their responsibilities and exhibit a higher degree of devotion in the workplace that motivates them for better service delivery sums up to job satisfaction. Considering the diversity concerning personality, styles of work, background, and depth of experience in the workplace, conflicts are inevitable. As per Sims (2006), through human resource development, management of conflicts is facilitated by improved work force management relation. HRD nurtures institutional health, culture, and environment that results in transformative management. Human Resource Development may support understanding the measures of the transfer, and the procedures of alteration that transients cause. The analysis identifies with the communal vicinity of transients, additionally concerning the aspect of multinational personnel and to the multinational institutions.
2.3. Types of Human Resources Development
There are various types of human resource development which provides various services and these include; training services, organizational development services, and business process design services. Training services pertains focus on provision of various external and internal stakeholders incompetence to tackle a given tasks in the time being and the future. These results to the development of the pyramid required to perform a related job in the future and now by groups, employees, department, network of organization, and entire organization. Training also helps external stakeholders that are partner organizations, customers, and suppliers to tackle a particular task. The use o training in provision of services and product helps to secure sales which are in the increasing competitive market (lepak, 1998). These services helps the employees to gain skills in tackling life tasks like financial management which helps to develop quality of life and lower the employees stress.
Organizational development services which focuses on the organizational capacity development and health in some levels and this helps the organization to withstand any change effectively. Training acts as the basic foundation of organizational change and development, training is a distinct function given its level of importance. Interventions in some levels is referred in organizational development services within the organization and don’t use any traditional method of training, direct intervention is required for the aimed part of the organization. For instance, providing training to the employees concerning conflict and in the same company you request an OD intervention for solving conflict in the company. Intervention levels that targets on various level of the organization, the services provided by the OD include two basic processes embedded in the intervention process in general (Knowles, 2014). Performance assessment and structured problem solving are the two basic methods for improving health and performance over the organization. The option of bundling business possessed by the manager process training, design, and OD services in companion to meet their organizational development, management, and training needs.
Business process design services help the client to figure out and re-engineer the important tasks core end-to-end business, jobs, and procedure processes. By figuring out major duties, task- elements, tasks, and responsibilities of a certain job is termed as the analysis of the job task. Job task analysis which is well organized and accurate is essential in provision of effective training of a specific job. The should –be process is represented by the figuring out of the re-engineering procedures, important tasks, and end-to-end business processes, which is relied in making of the effective task or training process of the specific job. Specific training is founded by effective training, the figuring out of the important tasks and processes is beneficial in technology identification and other guidelines for execution of the tax required providing support for the job, organizational performance and group (Wright, 2001). An organization which has effective analysis of job task, sufficiently detailed, and accurate analysis and key process maps, it has the ability to improve processes of the network and to work on in a best organized, effective manner, and effective.
2.4 Evaluation of Human Resource Development
The reason for evaluation will fluctuate upon the targets of importance partners. The partners may decide to be working in partnership with the company environment and also with outer benefactors or suppliers. According to research good work environment evaluation will link with partners at the ex-stake, ex-post stage and interval delineates previously. It contends for a participatory means to deal with an evaluation that has been created in a joint effort with key accomplices’. However, the targets of diverse partners may change (Joy-Matthew et al 2004). Any evaluation may require receiving a scope of routines and measures to assess the accomplishment in achieving such goal.
Kirkpatrick Model of Evaluation
In this model each of the four named levels provides important information that together develops a chain of evidence for program effectiveness. Evaluating training effectiveness often encompasses using the four levels Kirkpatrick created by Donald L. Kirkpatrick in the year 1954.
Level 1 Evaluation- reaction
Assessment at this level tests how participants in an exercise program reach to it. This level tries to answer questions concerning the participants’ perception. According to Kirkpatrick, every program must be assessed at this level since it is fast, inexpensive and easy. The participants’ reactions also have important consequences for learning. A positive reaction still does not guarantee to learn, however; negative reaction almost reduces its possibility (Kirkpatrick, 2007).
Level 2 Evaluation – Learning
To examine the amount of learning that has occurred because of a training program, however, this level two assessments mostly use tests done during pretest and post test. Evaluation at this level moves such evaluations beyond the satisfaction of the learner and tries to examine the extent to which learners have advanced skills, attitude or knowledge (Kirkpatrick, 2007). Many organizations are satisfied to see that learning was also documented without consideration of the level of know-how of the participants at the start of the program.
Level 3 Evaluation- Behavior
Level 3 evaluations measure the transfer that occurred in learners’ behavior because of the training program. Assessing at this level tries to answer the question whether they newly acquire knowledge; skills or attitude being utilized from a day in and day out the environment of the scholar. Measurement at this point is not as challenging as historical texts would suggest. Developing techniques of reinforcement and follow-up during the period of training program design is the best performance that facilitates level 3 execution. Precisely level 3 are for the responsibility of the business supervisor and managers to which the training participants report. The primary role of the training professional is to prepare supervisors and managers to which the schooling participants report (Kirkpatrick, 2007).
Level 4 Evaluation- result
At this level assessment measures the impact of the training and the subsequent reinforcement on firms results.

This first level method the members’ responses to the improvement and preparation obstruction they encounter. Information is collected using glads sheets or various types of what Kirkpatrick (1998) portrays as measures of consumer loyalty. The reasons for measuring responses are shifted. It can rate what is achieved by members. Thus, it quantifies a passionate reaction that despite that it is not logically demonstrated as accurate, does not provide relatively quick data from which to assess the effectiveness of an intervention. Authors Alliger and Kirkpatrick warn those interpreting data that positive responses do not normally rise to a respectable preparing acquaintance, and negative responses do not parallel a poor one (Kirkpatrick, 2007). A conclusion gauge could be that positive responses do not grantee adapting, however, make members more delightful to further organizing and energize learning. A member may also be more positive in their explanation of the experience of their associates and director in this manner affecting future members will. However, a negative report may withdraw a member from future and learning preparing exercises. Awful exposure like responses may deliver in a more extensive work environment would not assist the deeds of a grounding division when it advances like medications later on.

2.4.1. Evaluation Theories
Evaluation is used as a general word that includes these properties that can be linked to a mixed bag of parts of Human Resource Development. Accompanying keywords highlight the focus of the diverse methodologies. Embarking the assessment in the good old days is the rationale of experimentation. About 30 years of trial on some policies based on social experiments via social assessments have been an important technique for examining potential new arrangements more so in the United States of American., far-reaching planning usage (Stufflebeam & Shinkfield, 2007).
There is a big deal of overlap between the events of HRD, training, education and development. Both training and education lead to the development, and it is impossible to disconnect education from development and training usage (Stufflebeam & Shinkfield, 2007). Training majorly focuses on the acquisition of new knowledge and skills, but these may not be enough to execute a task, precisely at top management.
2.4.2. Positivism and Relativism
All through current decades there have been warmed trades between the advocates of constructive and positive ways to deal with an evaluation. Between the extremes of positivist and constructionist lies a pluralist perspective of assessing which calls for both profoundly in evaluating a project (Francisco, Calif & Jossey-Bass Laudan, 1996). .

2.4.4. Objectives
When the event is beneficial, the destination of the new approaches program or ventures should be unmistakably expressed. There is an important result, focus and yields on that must be set out. Objectives should be SMART: Specific, Measurable, Achievable, Realistic, and Time-bound.

2.5. Effectiveness of Human Resources Development
Effective Human Resource Management entails the practice of ensuring human capital belonging to the organization e.g. employees, skills, abilities and knowledge contribute to the positive outcomes of that organization. The human capital is of great importance to any organization and effective management of is key to the achievements of any organization. The theoretical literature suggests that effective human resource management increases productivity by increasing skills and motivation of the employees (Huselid et al, 1997). Effective human management has the implication on human positive human development, and an organization should devise the best ways to effectively manage its human resource capital for optimum human productivity. Human capital is so essential to any organization, and an organization with the best human capital has an advantage edge over its competitors.
The market value of human resource reliant organizations are increasingly depending on intangible assets that comprises of core competencies, knowledge and organizational capabilities (Lawler, 2005). According to Lado & Wilson, human resource systems can contribute to sustained competitive advantage by facilitating the development of competencies that are specific to any organization (2000). The other contribution of human resource systems includes production of complex social relationships, embedding in the history, culture of an organization, and practices used in enhancing employee skills through trainings and other skills and knowledge enhancement (Lepak & Snell, 1999). Effective human resource development is at the core of improving human capital by influencing productivity of people in an organization. There are four basic dimensions to Human resource development and utilization that includes; decision– making involvement, training and development of employees, goal communication and support for personal initiative.
Training and human development of employees is crucial due to difficulties in finding the human capital in the market that has the qualities specific to the organization (Lepak & Snell, 1999). Therefore, it is imperative for an organization to internally develop the required skills that are essential to the improvement of employees’ productivity. Additionally, human development helps in shaping attitudes and behavior of the employees, to make employees skills consistent with organizational goals and enhancing their role in achieving the goals and aims of an organization. Decision making involvement is imperative in creation of dedicated commitment of employees, which in turns affects their performance (Arthur, 1994; Huselid et al., 1997; Lepak & Snell, 1999). The result of human resource training is that employees will make their contribution to the company thereby deriving motivation in their workplaces. Support for personal initiative is referred to as empowering of employees because personal initiative describes extra role behaviors such working independently, assuming more responsibility and controlling one’s own work in an independent way. A strong relationship exists between business outcomes and empowerment of employees (Arthur, 1994; Huselid et al., 1997). The goal of communication is to provide information to a person or group in a fashion that enables them to integrate new information with their own knowledge and use it to make decisions. Finally, the high investment in training and human resource development programs, job enrichment and work design, promotions planning, and other HRD activities have proven effective outcomes are related to an organization’s core competencies and human capital (Blackman & Lee-Kelley, 2006).
According to Sharabi & Harpaz, many organizations are increasing getting drenched in the dependency on human capital to carry out most of its work especially in the service industry. Human capital factors such as professionalism in certain fields, basic skills, mastery of the organizational operations sum up to the intangible assets of any organization. Additionally, research suggests that in order for an organization to grow and develop in must well anchored in competent human resource in terms of enhanced motivation, involvement loyalty, commitment and performance. Literature review suggests that for effective human development through enhanced employee skills in the form of skill enhancement, knowledge and training should be based on the assessment of Human Resource Development. Hence, an organization that maintains high human resource development activities should experience positive consequences on its effectiveness and overall performance.
Human Resource Development is one way of generating organization internally competent resources. It is evident that skills and knowledge acquired in Human Resource Development are critical to the essence of training management processes irrespective of the human resource factor used. The study suggests that Research and Development Managers should focus on how to improve the skills of employees through initiating human development programs. Improving the skills of the employees within an organization may result in the generation of more firm- specific resources for organization’s success in future. Finally, the study findings indicate that knowledge management influences effectiveness of the organization.
3. Document 4(Research Methodology)
This is a qualitative research project where the clarification of the nature and scope of the study will be conducted. In this section several steps will be undertaken such as data analysis, sampling procedure, data collection, questionnaire design, procedures, pilot study, and interviews. Primary data is collected by twenty members of PACA’s top management. This interview will assist in analyzing and exploring objectives and the research questions so that issue and themes can be drawn from the research (Kumar & Phrommathed, 2005). The researcher should be person who knows how to socialize with the people so he or she can be able to socialize with the interviewees so that he or she can access reliable responses from the interviewees. Therefore the researcher needs more concentration in data collection for them to be systematic, consistent and an orderly manner.
Employees working at PACA will conduct focus groups of eight members to bring together their views on the perceptions, participation, and involvement in activists of PACA’s Human Resource Development (Kothari, 2004). These groups give the researcher time to develop an understanding about how people feel in partnership with job they pursue. These groups are efficient, quick, and reliable by the researcher when wide range of information is needed in a short period of time. The only limitation involved when conducting such type of research as compared to individual questionnaire is that the researcher is unable to make efficient control of the group as compared to individual making it difficult to analyze the data and difficult to secure the agreement of 6-8 people to participate and make them turn up in particular time (Glaser, 1978).
4. Document 5 (Testing and Feedback) with (Summary and Conclusion)
The document presents the proposed HRD model that has been created by a researcher who assumes that it can be utilized in the Public Authority Aviation. It is relevant to stakeholders based on feedbacks by use of Delphi method. It also provides conclusion and summary of the study and state recommendations improving the current system of HRD in Public Authority of Aviation. More studies are encouraged in this document.

Developing a conceptual model
Abiding by the guidelines of this study, it is important considering the relationship between various entities in listed under the research questions. The conceptual model outlined below will facilitate identification of the major entities in the evaluation of the effectiveness of Human Resource Development in the Public Authority Aviation, incorporating a framework that will enable outline correlation between various entities in the evaluation of the HRD in Public Authority Aviation. The following research questions were taken into account while developing the conceptual model:
What are do aviators say about the effectiveness of the Human Resource Development in Public Authority of Aviation?
What is the existing Human Resource Development in the Public Authority of Aviation?
What are the setbacks encountered by the HRD in Public Authority of Aviation?
What are the advantages of HRD in the Public Authority of Aviation?

From the research questions described in the conceptual framework, some of the empirical questions that arise include the following:
What influences the existing HRD at the Public Authority of Aviation?
Why do challenges arise in the existing HRD in the Public Authority of Aviation?
What benefits does HRD offer the Public Authority of Aviation?

6. Methodology
According to Cunliffe (2010) two approaches of research philosophies namely the subjectivist and objectivist. This was a typology that was established by Smirch and Morgan’s typology. The subjectivist approach, there is a belief that people are autonomous. It is due to this reason that they are very creative and attach meanings to what near them. The approach also assumes that knowledge has the characteristic of being personal and experimental. Still the approach assumes the mind of a person produces the reality and that they are closely related. Therefore, if a researcher uses this kind of approach he should focus on comprehending each and every individual.
While in objectivist approach, the hypothesis is that certainty is concrete. In this manner, certainty has diverse characteristics. Reality can influence the behavior of individual and also it is external and imposes itself. The same approach assumes knowledge to be real. Thus, this implication shows that knowledge has a pattern, regularities, and laws. On different note, an object is thought about and still perceived by a particular person. An object can take different forms that include universal truth, material artifact, text or principle. For the subjects to perceive the objects, knowledge has to come into play (Cunliffe, 2011). The researcher questions presented the discussed approaches of research philosophies for getting an accurate result.
7. Research Theory
Human performance is very important in any working setting. In evaluation of the effectiveness of the Human Resource Development, appropriate human management is key. The philosophical perspectives of ontology and epistemology are important in explaining how knowledge is paramount to human resource (Cunliffe, 2010). The major querry for both perspectives is how human beings can achieve knowledge through their own construct, since they are agents through which knowledge is experienced or perceived. Qualitative research is very effective in this context of evaluating the effectiveness of human resource development and how it relates to performance, through the use of structured questionnaires and interviews that are used to collect data in qualitative form.
The Epistemological perspective argues that evaluation of human resource development can be achieved through an organized data collection method and indepth analysis that seeks to generate relevant knowledge about human beings in terms of their skills, competencies and professional knowledge (Cunliffe, 2010). The ontological view of effectiveness of Human Resource Development is pursued on positivist view; in which structured and semi-structured interviews are used to collect data that is coded, grouped and analyzed using statistical models (Cunliffe 2002). The structured interviews are essential in qualitative research through collection of data on reflective issues, concerns and insights that the participants jointly get to discuss (Morgan, 1980).

8. Research Design
For the sake of carrying out this research study, both qualitative research and quantitative research will be utilized. Qualitative research will be appropriate in collection of data that cannot be quantified while quantitative research will be used to collect data that can be statistically measured. However, in some instances where explanations will be required, qualitative research will be applicable. For the case of this study, both quantitative and qualitative research methods will be used.
8.1. Quantitative research
Quantitative research methods will be used to collect data on research question detailed above. Standardized data collection tools such as structured, semi- structured interviews, mail survey, and questionnaires will be used in collection under quantitative research.
8.2. Qualitative research
In instances, where addressing the research questions will be beyond the counting and statistical techniques, qualitative research will be applicable. Data collection tools such as case study, formal and informal interviews, participant observation; archival data surveys will be used in this case. The case study will be based on Oman Airport, in which structured questionnaires and interviews will be used.

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