This is a take home exam that’s worth 25%, please do your best
This is the paper that I need you to edit, I want you to look at the feedback from the professor and improve this paper according to the feedback,, the professor might ask you to refer and cite from the course material more, so I will upload other 3 papers which was done about the same topic and mostly cited from the course materials, so you can use that and add to this one (mine) from the other 3 to improve my paper ,as if you were using the course materials
Feedback from the PROF:
Well done. Please ensure to alphabetize the references cited section. Avoid ending with a citation instead develop a conclusion. Also, please do try to multisource and countersource the claims using our class materials.
Quick Write Up 5: Explore the concepts of pharmaceuticalization and medicalization,
judicialization, and projectification of health care in regard to our readings
Medicalization of health care is the development of a capitalist culture toward health hence expanding the consumption of medical commodities. This is done through the influence of capitalism on the social, economic, and political determinants of health. Panitch and Leys (60) claim that the neoliberalism has increased the thirst for extraordinary profits, hence making the health care system a center for maximizing profits. The companies now turn to promoting medication on television, pharmacies and in other industries such as the hotel and hospitality industry; marketization of public health services (Clark 124). Accumulation by institutional adaptation has seen a rise in corporations, trade associations, societies in the treatment of various medical conditions. The profits are huge, for example in the United States health spending was in the range of $3.5 trillion which is equivalent to 18.7% of its Gross Domestic Product (GDP). (Panitch and Leys 63).
Projectification of health care as we had discussed in the group meeting is the proliferation of health care programs that are based on dependency in treatment of a disease thus making the patients loyal “clients” to the program. This is sustained by individual or institutional interests rather than by the objective of meeting the health care needs of the people. Projectification happens when a health issue is used to gain relevance in society, as seen in Uganda where the president uses Aids campaigns to legitimize his leadership (Petryna and Biehl 143), by being hospitable to donors and accepting many organizations to solve the health issue. This brings in many generous donors who support different projects and create a “client-ship” culture in the healthcare system.
In the discussion group, the conclusion was that the concept of medicalization will often result to pharmaceuticalization of the health care. With the sense that more people will need access to treatment for a variety of ailments the pharmaceutical industry engages in research and development of a variety of medicines that prevent and cure the myriad of diseases (Rodríguez-Garavito 150). The Pharmaceutical Industry players expand by researching new markets and deepening the consumption in existing ones, using policies and the administration of countries to adapt their products and lowering costs by foreign sourcing of raw material, that is, in the case of clinical trial subjects (Panitch and Leys 86). The government than support this by formulating policies that improve drug distribution networks as seen in Brazil. (Petryna and Biehl 330). The industrial sector represented by Advanced Medical Technology Association (AdvaMed) fight for protection through patents and pushes for the expansion of utilization of medical technologies in the U.S. hence bringing more medical products and techniques in the healthcare sector (Panitch and Leys 67).
The judicialization of the health care is generated by the drug prices and the access to treatment. Judicalization is the concept where the patient or client invokes his/her right to health in a law court. In a bid to advance the health care of a country, many governments enact laws that give the citizens the right to health care. In effect, the people consequently invoke the rights when they do not receive the treatment they require. In Brazil, for instance, who enacted a policy of free and Universal distribution of antiretroviral drugs (ARVs), AIDS activists began to claim the right to pharmaceuticals in courts (Petryna and Biehl 329) This brought about an influx of right-to-health litigations both in the federal and state courts that were granted since the judges could not go against a right that is enshrined in the constitution. A right to health guarantee to the people in the noble act but it initiates a problem for the government and relevant medical institutions in the provision of treatments. This law ensures there is access to medication by improving the distribution of drugs, but there is the contention of constraints in the budget and inequalities in the health care access. This has brought about the construction of Universal health care systems that try to manage the evolving pharmaceutical sector (Petryna and Biehl 336).
Petryna, Adriana, and João Biehl. When People Come First: Critical Studies in Global Health.
Princeton: Princeton University Press, 2013. Print.
Panitch, Leo and Colin Leys . “Socialist Register, 2010. Morbid Symptoms: Health under
Capitalism. London: The Merlin Press, 2010. Print.
Clark, Jocalyn. “Medicalization of global health 4: the universal health coverage campaign and
the medicalization of global health.” Global health action 7 (2014).
Rodríguez-Garavito, César. “The Judicialization of Health Care: Symptoms, Diagnosis, and
Prescriptions.” Law and Development ofMiddle-Income Countries (2013).
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