Perceptions and attributions affect their behavior in any organization. Perception is a psychological process in which people receive information from the environment or other people and organize it to make sense to them (Slocum & Don, 2007). For people to filter out information in a process of determining and evaluating information individuals must make use of perceptual selection. Likewise, an employee’s perceptual view is greatly affected by the external and internal factors such as occurrence of events, personality, learning, motivation among others. Workers should be careful to avoid attribution errors, which lead to wrong perceptions and conclusions about other people. Therefore, employees need to understand and develop a positive perception towards their company first, for them to convince the customers about the company’s commodities or products and services. Employees need to understand that people’s perceptions influence the way they respond to information. Such an understanding therefore helps the employees to increase their productivity and consequently enhance the performance of the organization.
Moreover, failure of employees to understand and appreciate personality differences and the behavioral attributes that distinguish one person from another in an organization, will affect performance adversely. Employees ought to know that perceptions and attributions are closely related. Understanding these perceptions and attributions therefore determine the workplace behavior, which directly or indirectly determines the effectiveness of an organization. Failure to know how people form perceptions and make attributions leads to a violent working environment, which further contributes to stress among employees. This is because wrong perceptions about others result to problems in the organization such as stereotyping that could degenerate into violent confrontations.
When employees learn how others form perceptions and make attributions, cases whereby people find themselves in strange, confusing situations, they tend to have difficulty coping. When employees recognize how to handle and appreciate other people’s perceptions and attributions, they become effective even when selling the company’s products because they are in a better position to handle prospective buyers. In addition, this helps minimize biases that distort attribution.
Every management should seek to understand the beliefs and ideologies that their employees hold other than just knowing their desires (Holt, 2008). The learning theories are very important for the company since they assist in showing how people perceive relationships between behaviors and rewards. This theory suggests that any individual engages in a certain behavior because that behavior is triggered by a given outcome and that an employee must perform some task to receive the reinforcing outcome (Taylor, 2009).
Operant learning is preferred especially where a firm desires to reinforce simple or some well-learned responses among human beings. This hypothesis is very beneficial when the wishes to inculcate a given behavior that the employees may not develop or nurture on their own. In such a case, the management of an organization may use a process under this theory referred to as shaping in which rewarding of employees is carried out to attain consecutive approximations towards a desired behavior. Since, it is difficult for an employee to carry out complex tasks or adopt a certain behavior all of a sudden; the company can use shaping instead of wasting a lot of time waiting the specific character to be developed by the worker. When the employees are close to the desired approximation, incentives can be offered but the organization can hold the rewards until the employee fully approaches and adopts the behavior that the company desires. One of the greatest benefits of using this theory is that in the end, the company is able to shape complex desired behaviors from very simple initial behaviors among employees. Given that employees are one of the most key resources of a company that determine the company’s success or failure in the market, employees attaining these complex behaviors gives the firm a competitive edge over other competing companies in the market. Likewise, this theory can help the company attain high levels of expertise in diverse fields of operation because employees become hard working and dedicated to their responsibilities, which guarantees success in business.
This leaning theory will help the company in that it avails information needed to estimate character, permanence, and strength of the relationship between behaviors and rewards (Kavita, 2009). Bearing in mind, employees would like to maximize pleasure and minimize pain and stress; it is therefore advisable for the company to adopt this theory because it does not stress the workforce.
The sales company can therefore work towards giving positive reinforcements such as increasing salaries or awarding bonuses in order to increase efficiency and frequency of an expected behaviour. The company can also apply this theory by employing negative reinforcement to increase a given response or reaction among employees. For example, a sales manager who wants to raise the sales volume and knows a group of salespeople within the department who don’t like promotion activities in rural areas can shift this responsibility to others who enjoy doing it. This will eventually increases the sales force’s enthusiasm and hence increase production because of the increase in sales.
The company can also adopt punishment in using this theory because people will tend to avoid behaviors that are followed by things that they dislike. Employees cannot continue doing things that are punishable by the organization and so an individual will try to avoid such behaviors at whatever cost. For the company to continue performing, some behaviors must be abolished by punishing those who do them.
Moreover, failure to punish such offenders implies that the company accepts the same and the organization may be held liable for the employee’s actions. This theory helps increase employee’s morale because of the positive reinforcement, which comprises of increase in salaries, allowances, and other benefits that in turn increase performance in the workplace. A different way in which this theory increases employee’s performance is in the way all employees are held accountable for their actions and high performers in the organizations are further motivated using rewards. Since, this hypothesis encourages teamwork, groups work hard to ensure that projects are completed on time and excellence is embraced. Because of globalization in resourcing for employees, high levels of ethnic and cultural diversity within the company are attained. This is because the theory emphasizes on getting the best employees for the jobs to increase performance. Therefore, leadership trainings that support the operant conditioning by making sure that the managers are trained on how to handle diverse people boost performance. An added basic thing under operant theory that result into increase of employee performance is implementing programs that are a bit flexible increases attendance since employees have enough time to relax and work on other things that would stress them. Likewise, a simple act like writing thank you notes to workers increases loyalty among employees they appreciate the fact that the management can recognize their efforts in the organization. Furthermore, other reinforcement acts may include keeping in touch with the employees, which shows care and concern for them, and taking them for lunch occasionally goes a long way, thus motivating them to do better.
According to (Holt, 2008) self-efficacy is a belief of a person that he or she has the necessary knowledge and skills to perform a given task effectively to bring the desired results. It is very essential for a company to nature this attitude, that the company and the products or the services it offers are right for the customers even before the actual selling whereby they convince customers can takes place. Therefore, the company should first develop its own self-efficacy for it to succeed in its production; this is because the company cannot seek to recruit self-efficient employees if it has not cultivated this attitude itself. For that reason, there should be a thorough understanding by the company of its value and the products and services it provides to their customers, which would be important to help develop the same attitude to the customers. If a company does not appreciate its value then it is impossible to target the right and highly qualified personnel.
Recent studies indicate that the significance of self-efficacy in choosing and developing jobs at the workplace describes this as a conviction in one’s ability to carry out a task effectively or execute a given behavior profitably. He further defines it as judgments of how well one can portray his or her abilities to handle issues that are related to a given job. Self-efficacy has a lot of relevance in any organization that wishes to prosper in business because it is directly related to performance. The reason behind this is that employees with a high sense of this belief have a great persistence even when faced by obstacles and other tough challenges. In addition, this category of people usually set themselves very challenging goals, which they work towards attaining hence having such employees in the company is a great investment. Having an understanding of the value of self-efficacy is very important in ensuring that the company employs the most successful people because this aspect can be used as a key predictor of an individual’s level of commitment and performance in an organization.
It is necessary for the company to understand the various kinds of self efficacy so that based on mastery or working experience and ignore other prospective employees who lack experience. According to Schyns & Collani (2002), a relationship exists between self-efficacy and personality, which involves self-esteem among individuals as well as other important variables such as job satisfaction, commitment, performance, job insecurity, and task demands. Likewise, companies should understand the various practices by individuals such as attending meetings where information on jobs or other avenues where coaching is done can result to improved efficiency. Some studies have shown that there is a relationship between self-efficacy and training (Anbuvelan, 2010). For the company to ensure that salespeople understand the specific behavioral and outcome, expectations that are needed in executing their jobs should embrace this.
Anbuvelan, K. (2010). Principles of Management. Washington: Firewall Media.
Holt, D. (2008). Management Principles & Practices (3rd Ed.). New York: Prentice Hall.
Kavita, S. (2009). Organizational Behavior. New York: Pearson Publishers.
Slocum, J. W., & Don, H. (2007). Organizational Behavior. Washington: Cengage Learning.
Taylor, W. (2009). Principles of Management (2nd ed.). Washington: Cengage Learning Publishers.
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