1. Before returning to the text, start here for a nice discussion about “albedo” (prounounced al-bee-doe). Albedo is the fraction — or percentage of solar energy – striking a surface that is reflected. So, something very bright, clean white would have an albedo of 1 (100% reflected) and something pure, clean black would have an albedo of 0 (0% reflected), with all other values in between 0 and 1.
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Answer the following question:
What role could intentional changing the earth’s albedo have as a geo-engineering solution to climate change?
2. Multiple choice
1. The ultimate source of the energy that drives the atmosphere, produces weather, and is the principal control of climate is the
a. Earth’s interior heat.
b. the Sun.
2. Wien’s displacement law says, as the surface temperature of objects increases, the wavelength at which radiation emitted by that surface is most intense
b. remains the same.
3. Because of the great differences in their surface temperatures, the sun radiates most intensely in the visible segment of the electromagnetic spectrum whereas the much cooler Earth radiates most intensely in the ______ segment.
4. The Stefan-Boltzmann law relates the total energy flux to the fourth power of a blackbody’s a. temperature.
5. The Earth’s global temperature, when averaged over time, is quite constant. This is because the planet radiates to space an amount of energy that is ______ the amount it receives from the sun. a. less than
b. the same as
c. more than
6. Assuming no atmospheric effects, the total amount of solar energy received at a particular location on Earth during one daylight period will be determined by how high the sun rises in the sky (solar altitude) and
a. length of daylight.
b. varying solar intensity.
7. Assuming no atmospheric effects, sunlight is most intense on Earth where the noon sun is directly overhead (at the zenith). The noon sun can be at the zenith only at locations within ______ degrees latitude of the equator.
8. According to the figures showing the solar illumination on the solstices and equinoxes, the period of daylight at the equator is always the same, that is, ______ hours.
9. The lower the albedo of a surface, the ______ the amount of radiation falling on that surface that is absorbed and converted to heat.
10. The Antarctic “Ozone Hole” typically reaches maximum size in a. February.
11. The atmosphere is relatively transparent to solar radiation and relatively opaque to the Earth’s infrared radiation. This results in significant ______ of the lower troposphere.
12. The principal greenhouse gas is a. carbon dioxide.
b. water vapor.
13. Under otherwise similar clear-sky conditions, the less the amount of water vapor in the air the ______ the overnight low temperature.
14. Global climate change can occur by elevated levels of atmospheric CO2. This theory is the ______ effect.
15. A radiometer that measures incoming solar radiation intensity is a a. geometer.
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