An Analysis of the Factors That Affect Individual’s Buying Behaviour of Jeans Wear in United Kingdom
The modern world is characterized with intense businesses activities where firms compete with one another for the market share. Consumers are also becoming more demanding and market savvy given the fact that they are having more options of products in the market than they experienced in the past. Businesses are therefore forced with a dilemma of understanding the behaviour of consumers so as to develop appropriate marketing strategies that can enable them gain competitive advantage in the market. Clothing industry has become very lucrative to businesses given its huge profitability and rapid growth. The clothing industry is also characterised with rapid changes as consumers taste and preferences change with time. This requires businesses in clothing industry to adopt strategies that can make them gain competitive advantage in the market. This research study analyses factors that affects UK jeans consumer purchasing behaviours. The study came up with five main objectives that are used to analyse the behaviour of UK jeans consumers. Various data collection and analysis methods are used to investigate the behaviours of jeans consumers in the UK market. The relationship between various demographics factors and UK jeans consumers are also investigated in the study.
Table of Contents
List of Tables
Table 1: Research Structure. 11
Table 2: Jeans sales in UK Market. 23
Table 3: Men’s sales of Jeans In UK market 24
Table 4: The response of the study participants in relation to their ages. 33
Table 5: The response of the study participants in relation to the level of education. 35
Table 6: The response of the study participants in relation to the profession. 36
Table 7: The response of the study participants in relation earnings. 37
Table 8: Factors that affects consumers purchasing decisions. 37
Table 9: Individuals that can influence consumers purchasing decision. 38
Table 10: The preferred country of origin for the Jeans. 39
Table 11: The favourite make of Jeans. 40
Table 12: Source of knowledge about Jeans. 41
Table 13: The mode of selection and purchase of jeans. 41
Table14: Elements that makes individuals interested in Jeans in UK Market. 42
Table 15: Number of Jeans owned by individuals. 43
Table 16: The frequency of consumers in purchasing jeans per year. 44
Table 17: The price consumers are able to pay for Jeans. 45
Table 18: Average and standard deviation of factors influencing consumers’ decisions to buy jeans. 46
Table 19: The degree of influence of product factors. 47
Table 20: The degree of influence of the price factors. 49
Table 21: The degree of influence of place factors. 50
Table 22: The degree of influence of promotion factors. 52
Table 23: Association of age with UK jeans consumer behaviour. 54
Table 24: Relationship between the level of education and UK jeans consumer purchasing behaviour. 56
Table 25: Relationship that exists between occupation and UK jeans consumer purchasing behaviour. 57
Table 26: Relationship that exists between the level of income and UK jeans consumer behaviour. 58
Table 27: The relationship that exists between the product factors and the UK jeans consumers’ purchasing behaviour 59
Table 28: Relation between price factors and UK jeans consumer purchasing behaviour. 60
Table 29: Relationship that exists between place factors and UK jeans consumer purchasing decisions. 61
Table 30: Association that exists between the promotional factors and UK jeans consumer purchasing decisions behaviour 62
Jeans market has particularly attracted attention of individuals from all demographic backgrounds around the world. Jeans wear is currently popular to majority of people and is being sold through various retail outlets, shops and designer companies. Jeans market in the global market has grown significantly over the previous years due to a huge demand. Jeans has gained popularity among individuals due to their fashionable design and trends. The jeans market therefore offers huge investment opportunities to businesses and there is a need for the potential investors to come up with appropriate strategies that can make them design jeans that satisfy customers’ needs. Few researches have been done on the factors that affect individuals buying behaviour of jeans. This research is therefore aimed at providing insights to various investors in UK jean market on the factors that affects the purchasing decision of jeans consumers.
Jeans have in the recent past entered UK and become popular among a number of jeans customers in the country. A clear date for the arrival of jeans in UK cannot however be determined. The rapidly increasing number of jeans dealers in the country suggests that Jeans has become a popular type of clothing among various individuals in UK. Whereas various styles of jeans have been introduced in the market, many dealers and businesses are beginning to offer products aimed at gaining competitive advantage in the jeans market instead of offering stock for sale in the market. This can be achieved through offering different jeans designs that satisfy variety of consumers needs.
The current actual value for jeans market in UK cannot be exactly established. However it is clear that the entire UK jeans market was worth approximately 1.4 billion pounds in 2005 and that over 50 percent of adult population in UK wear Jeans. This trend shows that Jeans market is on a steady rise in UK and this provides attractive investments opportunities for new business venture. Of particular interest is the rapid growth of demand of jeans by women in the UK. Recent research also shows that three pairs of jeans are sold every second of every day in the UK market. This shows that the demand for Jeans in UK is high and there is also high prospect of growth in jeans demand in the country. On average Britons spends approximately 1.5 billion pounds each year on their favourite brand of jeans. Jeans from either designer labels or supermarkets have clearly attracted the fashion industry and continue to attract huge sales in the UK market
Euromonitor statistics indicates that jeans for men posted the highest sales in the UK market with an increase of 15 percent of sales volume in 2012. This statistics means that men are the majority of jeans consumers in UK market. Many of the jeans retailers in UK therefore sell a high percentage of jeans for men as opposed to female jeans wear. Statistics also reveals that young people in the UK market are in favour of jeans as opposed to adult population. This implies that most of the jeans wear in UK are sold to the young population since they form a large percentage of jeans customers in the country. It is also worth to note that the sales of jeans has been on the rise as the UK jeans consumers are becoming aware of the variety of jeans in the market.
The main objective of the research study is to determine the factors that have impacts on the consumer’s behaviour when making purchasing decisions of jeans in United Kingdom. It is aimed at understanding the behaviour of consumers towards jeans in UK. The main findings of this research study can be used to develop marketing strategies by firms that are involved in the manufacturing and distribution of jeans in UK. Based on this the research study came up with five main objectives that include.
- To investigate the marketing mix of jeans wear in UK and how it relates to the consumer buying behaviour in UK jeans market.
- To investigate the factors that affect consumer purchasing behaviour of jeans wear in UK
- To investigate the reasons why consumers in the UK are purchasing jeans
- To examine the relation between the price of jeans and the behaviour of consumers in UK market
- To determine the relationship between the income of consumers and the purchasing trends of UK jeans consumers
Research questions are important for addressing the aims and objectives of a research study. Research questions are set so as to help guide researchers in the process of research study. This research study therefore came up with four main research questions which are used as the foundation of the study. The five main research questions for the study include the following.
- What the impacts of demographic characteristics on the purchasing decisions of UK Jeans consumers?
- What are the effects of marketing mix on the purchasing decisions of Jeans consumers in UK?
- What are the main reasons why consumers in UK purchase jeans?
- What is the relationship between price of jeans and UK consumers’ behaviour?
- How is income related to the purchasing trend of UK jeans consumers?
The following table shows a brief summary of this research paper.
|2.0. Literature Review||A review of literature on consumer behaviour
A review of literature on UK clothing industry
A review of literature on jeans market in UK
|Provide the outline of the research methodology used in the study
Justification of the methodology used in the study
Provide description of methods used to collect data
|4.0.Findings||Present the findings and analysis of the data collected in the study
Provide answers to all the research questions of the study
|5.0.Discusion of Results||Provide a discussion of the research findings in relations to other previous studies
Compare the findings of the research question with other previous studies
|6.0. Conclusion and Recommendation||Brief summary of the research process
Brief summary of the answers to the research questions
Summary of lessons from the research
Discus the study limitation
Provide recommendation and conclusions for the study
According to Young et al (2010) consumer buying behaviour has become one of the widely studied topics that are of importance for businesses when designing marketing strategies. The competitiveness in the business environment has enabled many organizations to develop strategies that can make them compete favourably in the marketplace (Forney et al, 2005). One of the effective ways of ensuring that organizations remain competitive in the business environment is through the provision of products that help satisfy customer’s needs. This can only be achieved when organizations are able to identify the taste and preferences of consumers. One of the best ways through which organization can be able to identify the taste and preference of consumers is through the study of the consumer buying behaviour.
Understanding of the consumer buying behaviour is important factors towards improving marketing strategies of organizations. The concept of consumer buying behaviour can be used to investigate the reasons behind consumers purchasing decisions, the process involved in purchasing a product and the factors that affects the purchasing decisions of consumers (Young et al, 2010). This can facilitate the development of an effective marketing strategy for firms so as to attract sales and be competitive in the market. Majority of marketing managers and organizations spends significant portion of their budgets to conduct market research on the behaviour of consumers with an aim of developing marketing strategies that are in accordance to the consumer needs. This can ensure that customers are attracted to purchase a product from an organization hence enhanced the performance, profitability and productivity of the organizations.
The decision that consumers make depends on various factors that include social, cultural, political, technological and personal factors (Holbrook, 2002). These factors play an important role in the consumer purchasing decisions and have a direct impact on the consumer’s decision of purchasing or nor purchasing a given product. The competitiveness and unique nature of the business environment necessitates marketing managers to be conversant with the factors that can influence the consumer behaviours so as to enable them develop appropriate marketing strategies that can help satisfy customers needs (Baumeister, 2002). Due to globalization, a number of organizations are nowadays operating in different countries that are characterised with various cultural backgrounds, unique lifestyles and tastes. This makes it essential for organization to determine the various needs of the consumers so as to come up with appropriate products that can help satisfy the needs of the consumers.
The behaviour of consumers in a given market can be determined by the cultural factors. Cultural factors can be defined as a set of norms, values, tradition, beliefs and behaviours of consumers in a specified place (De Vries, 2008). Cultural factors can be determined by the beliefs and tradition in a given society. For example institutions, religion, family and ethnic group can determine the cultural factors of a given society. It can also depends on the geographical region, religions, nationality, occupation, education, income and (Wang & Waller, 2006). The beliefs that a given society attaches to a product can influence the purchasing decision of consumers in a country or market. For example, some cultures might be against the use and consumption of a particular product hence they may not be interested in purchasing that particular brand. This can affects their purchasing decisions by making them shy from purchasing the product.
Social factors are the factors that include groups such as religious, family, status, social networks, neighbours and friends among others (Forney et al, 2005). The social group of an individual can have an influence on the buying decisions of consumers. This is because social groups can ensure that an individual to acquire a new status that reflects the community within a given social setting. Individuals within the same social group in most cases have the same taste and preferences hence affect their decisions with regards to consumption of a particular product (De Vries, 2008). Social factors can also directly or indirectly influence the behaviours and attitudes of consumers in different ways that include exposing them to new perception, lifestyle, taste and preference, behaviours, attitudes and self concept. Family can also influence the purchasing decision consumers’ through family orientation. Studies have shown that individuals belonging to a given social group can be of significant on the purchasing decisions of others in the same social group (Gereffi & Memedovic, 2003). The social class of individuals also have direct impact on the purchasing decision of people in the same social class. With these respect individuals in the same social class will behave in a similar way and this can make them make similar purchasing decisions.
Personal factors of individuals refers to the factors that determines the behaviour of consumers and can include various elements such as the level of education, age, economic status, self concept, values and personality and lifestyles (Häubl & Trifts, 2000). These factors can have a direct impact on the behaviour of individuals towards making purchasing decisions. Age of consumers can play a significant role in determining the choice of a product that is purchased at any given time. It can be argued that consumers taste and preference can vary based on the age of an individual. This implies that consumers can make purchasing decisions of products based on their ages as some products are manufactured to satisfy the targeted age of consumers in a market (Forney et al, 2005). For example, items such as toys are manufactured to satisfy the needs for children hence such goods are not appropriate for older people. This implies that individual’s age have a direct or indirect impact on the decision of products to be purchased. Occupation of an individual can also necessitates an individual to purchase a given product so as to help in accomplishing his or her job responsibilities.
Psychological can also affect individual’s decision to purchase products. These factors can be attributed to the attitudes, perception, beliefs and motivation of consumers (Häubl & Trifts, 2000). Psychological factors can facilitate the understanding and perception of individuals with respect to specific brand. They can also be used to evaluate the beliefs and experiences of consumers in a market (Entwistle, 2000). Through psychological factors it is possible for consumers to either perceive a product in either a positive or negative manner hence facilitates purchase decision of consumers. This implies that consumers will make purchasing decision of a product based on his or her perception. Psychological factors can also ensure that consumers are motivated and attracted to purchase a product.
The level of technological advancement is another important factor that can determine the decision that consumers make with regards to purchase of a product. Currently various individuals have been using internet marketing techniques to obtain information about the availability of goods and services as well as purchase the goods and services (Cook et al, 2000). Again many organizations are also conducting market intelligence through the use of online techniques and advanced level of technology. This is due to the fact that information technology can enable organization to determine the products that are preferred by consumers. Through advanced level of technology it has become easier for organizations to interact and communicate with their clients at various geographical regions. This can allow organizations to develop appropriate marketing strategies that can enhance the promotion of their products hence help in persuading consumers to purchase their product. This can enable organizations to influence the purchasing decisions of consumers. As the level of technology increases in the market, some products can be rendered obsolete and out dated in the market (Cook et al, 2000). This is because technological advancement often leads to invention and innovation. This consequently leads to the development of new products that can satisfy the current needs of customers.
There are also various factors that have been identified according to research studies as important in determining the consumer purchasing decision in clothing and fashion industry. A research study aimed at evaluating the effectiveness of online marketing identified that online marketing can influence consumers’ decision to purchase a product (Chen & Dubinsky, 2003). According to this study online marketing strategies can have a significant impact towards influencing the decision of a consumer to buy a product (Chen & Dubinsky, 2003). Chen & Dubinsky (2003) also suggested in his studies that internet marketing strategies can be essential in influencing consumers to purchase a product if the product is easily accessible as well as displayed in an appealing and attractive manner. Degeratu et al, (2000) argued that the main factor that is important in the determination of individuals purchasing behaviour is the price of a product. In their study, Degeratu et al (2000) noted that price plays an important role in determination of supply and demand in a given market. Majority of organizations have used price as strategic tool for attracting the attention of individuals to purchase a product as well as a means of gaining competitive advantage in the market through offering products at low prices (Degeratu et al, 2000).
Other factors that can affect the buying decision of consumers in a market include income level, the presence of close substitute products, weather conditions, tastes, preferences, promotional strategies and culture (Chen & Dubinsky, 2003). In his studies Doran (2009) argued that the demand of individuals for products increases as the level of income increases. The purchasing power of a consumer is likely to increase given an increase in the income level of individuals (Doran, 2009). According to Doran (2009) consumer will tend to demand and purchase more products when they are exposed to high wages and salaries. Weather on the other hand can also determine the demand of products in a market. Studies on the buying behaviour of consumers in clothing industry suggest that climatic and weather conditions are important factors that can determine the purchasing decision of consumer behaviour in the market (Entwistle, 2000). Entwistle (2000) also indicated that weather plays an important role in influencing the buying decision of consumers as opposed to other factors that include price and the level of income of individuals in clothing industry. They supported this by indicating that individuals are more interested in the type of clothing especially in regions with adverse climatic and weather conditions and this can make them buy clothing that can protect them from the adverse climate and weather condition at the price that is charged by the retailers. The argument by Entwistle (2000) is however disputed by various scholars that suggested that the level of income of individuals and price of products are the main factors that can determine the demand and supply of products in any industry (Doran, 2009; Lattin & Bucklin, 1989; Chen & Dubinsky, 2003).
The buying decision involves five main stages that include need recognition, information search, evaluation of alternative, purchase decision and post purchase decision (Baumeister, 2002, Häubl & Trifts, 2000). These five stages are the main determinant of the consumers purchase decisions. Each stage of the buying decision process plays a significant role in influencing the consumer decision process. Häubl & Trifts (2000) however argues that some purchasing decisions do not necessary follow the five stages illustrated in the buying decision process. In their argument Häubl & Trifts (2000) also indicated that the nature of some products do nor requires consumers to undergo all the five stages in the decision process and this makes it to be less ineffective towards explanations of purchasing decision process of certain products.
This is the stage where the consumer identifies and recognizes a need that can be solved by a particular product. The stage allows a consumer to fill the gap that exists between the desired and actual state (Reinartz, & Kumar, 2000). The problem recognition stage can be affected by various external and internal factors. The internal factors that affect this stage are as a result of the specification of consumers such as changes in income of consumers can result to desire by the consumer to purchase a particular product. External factors on the other hand are not directly related to individual consumers and might include aspects such as promtional strategies, economic condition, climatic and weather conditions (Häubl & Trifts, 2000).
This refers to the stage where an individual will look for information regarding a product that can help satisfy his or her need. This stage can be more important when a consumer has no adequate and detailed information regarding a product that can help satisfy the identified need (Holbrook, 2002).Information search stage can however be less important in cases where consumers are aware of all the available products that can solve the identified problems. Various sources of materials can be used by consumers to conduct information search such as through friend’s referrals, internet sources, magazines and various advertisements. Marketers also plays critical role to ensure the success of the stage by acting as the main sources of information and this facilitates product awareness to consumers. At this stage, the consumers are able to come up with various information regarding products (Kacen & Lee, 2002).
This is a stage in consumer purchasing decision process where individuals consider other alterative option of the products identified (Baumeister, 2002). This is the stage where consumers will analyses and evaluates all the available alternatives solution or product of the identified problem. This stage is based on the availability of the information that is obtained in the previous stage of the buyer decision making process so as to enable an identification of the best product or solution of the consumer need (Kocak et al, 2007). This accuracy of information gathered at the information search stage is critical for the success of this stage. Various consideration can be made during this stages such as the benefits and disadvantages of the products as well as the past experience and future expectations of the product.
At the purchasing decision stage, the consumer will have already developed an intention of purchasing the product. A number of factors can influence the purchasing decision of consumers at this stage and include factors such as attitudes of other individuals and uncertainties such as job lose. It is the role of marketers to ensure that consumers purchase the products at this stage by developing appropriate marketing strategies (Baumeister, 2002). The success of this stage can involve provision of a supportive environment to consumers as well as encouraging them so as to ensure that they purchase the product.
This is the last stage of the buyer decision process. This stage occurs when the consumers have actually purchased the products and are already using it. The stage is important since it can help influence consumers to purchase the same products in the future or to refer some consumers to purchase the products. This can depend on experience and how consumers are satisfied or not satisfied with the product purchased. This stage therefore requires marketers to be vibrant and monitor the behaviour of consumer’s after they have acquired a product so as to ensure repeat purchase and referral customers (Hair et al, 2000).
Product mix can be argued as an essential tool that can help towards development and implementation of marketing mix in organizations (Doran, 2009). According to Doran (2009) four factors that include price, product, place and promotion are important for the implementation of marketing strategies for various organizations. In a research study to investigate the influence that product mix have on the behaviour of consumer in clothing industry, (Kim et al, 2012) argued the variety of products plays significant role towards determination of the buying decision of individuals in clothing industry. In most cases consumers consider the quality and fashion of clothing as the main factors that influence the purchasing decision in clothing industry. The study is also supported by other scholars who also indicated that the main driving forces of consumers when purchasing clothing are the fashion trend and quality (Chen & Dubinsky, 2003; Degeratu et al, 2000; Bruce et al, 2004). Consumers also consider other factors when making purchasing decision of clothing such as place of manufacture, price charged and promotional techniques used. With regards to promotional techniques, Bhatnagar, Misra & Rao (2000) argued that social media is a widely used technique towards the promotion of clothing by various organizations. Social media has the capacity of creating product awareness to significant customers base in the global market hence is important tool for informing consumers on the availability and price products (Forney et al, 2005).
Various studies on clothing industry such studies by Rahman (2012); Entwistle (2000); Forney et al (2005); Degeratu et al, (2000) shows that place of origin of a product can have a significant influence on the purchasing decisions of individuals. Rahman (2012) further stated developing strategies that ensures that products become accessible to consumers can contributes positively to enhanced demand of products. He also suggested that using high level of information technology tools such as internet marketing can increases the demand and sales of product (Entwistle, 2000).Although the study indicated that social media is important in influencing the behaviour of consumers, another research study by Kim et al (2012) gives a contradiction to this argument by indicating that the use of social media has a limited ability in reaching to a wide customer base targeted by a product. In their research they argued that price but not the place has significant influence on the purchasing decision of consumers. Kim et al (2012) argued that there exists an inverse relation between demand of a product and price. This implies that the purchasing decisions of consumers can either be affected directly or indirectly by the price of a given product.
There exits high demand and supply of jeans in United Kingdom despite of a variety of clothing that is available in the country. It is also clear that the demand and supply of jeans has been rapidly increasing in UK market over the recent years (Gereffi & Memedovic, 2003). Majority of the targeted market for jeans in UK consist of the young generation. Jeans is also a favourite clothing for both women and men hence its demand attracts all people in the country. Another factor that has increased the UK jeans market is its relation with the fashion and lifestyle trends. Jeans are regarded by various people in the country as lifestyle and fashion clothing and this makes it attracts attention of a number of young people who are interested in fashionable products.
A recent research also indicates that jeans market is considerably large for men as compared to female consumers (Shaw et al, 2004). The research also shows that certain brands of jeans are preferred as opposed to other brands. However this depends on various factors such as age of consumers, gender, taste and preferences of individuals. There also exists evidence that shows that a high percentage of consumers in UK have strong preference on jeans that are made within the country. These changes of preference in favour of jeans from the country are as a result of the quality, originality and low cost of the Jeans that are made in UK.
|Super Premium jeans||699.8||784.7||854.2||952.9||1,093.6||1,235.8|
Source: Euromonitor international (2013)
Table 3: Men’s sales of Jeans In UK market
|Super Premium jeans||678.5||756.6||824.6||915.4||1038.9||1168.8|
Source: Euromonitor international (2013)
Over the past years UK jeans industry has increased significantly. The increase in jeans market in UK is as a result of the increase in demand of the Jeans in the UK and international markets. United Kingdom is among the major countries involved in the manufacturing of jeans in the world market (Cassidy & Bennett, 2012). Jeans industry in UK has grown over the recent period and currently it provides employment opportunities to a number of people in the country. The UK Jeans market has also unique features that differentiate it from other countries that are involved in the manufacturing of jeans. Majority of jeans manufacturers in UK jeans use the concept known as authenticity to manufacture the jeans (Jones & Hayes, 2004). This has enabled the UK jeans manufacturers to come up with brands of jeans that are differentiated from other brands of jeans in the world market. The strategies developed by UK jeans manufacturers enable them to produce original products that can be argued to be the new fashion design of the world. Another important factor in the UK jeans industry is that most of the manufacturers are loyal and value the original brands. This has made them able to please and attract customers from different parts of the world.
Previous research study of industries in UK also indicated that many entrepreneurs are considering investing in manufacturing Jeans owing to a shift of consumer’s preference on the jeans wear. It shows that a number of employees are employed in this industry making it to contribute the high levels of income in UK. Research that was carried out by Rahman (2012) on UK jeans industry shows that there are a number of factors that can affect the purchasing decision of consumers in UK jeans market. Rahman (2012) in his studies come up with various factors that influence individuals purchasing decisions towards the purchase of the UK jeans. The factors identified included fashion, sales promotion and quality of the products. The study further indicated that majority of consumers prefer jeans that originate from UK as compared to any jeans from other countries.
Research studies to investigate on the success of UK jeans market shows that various factors have played significant role in the development of UK jeans industry. Some of these factors include fashion associated with jeans, craftsmanship, quality of jeans and brand philosophy (Rahman, 2012; Chen & Dubinsky, 2003; Forney et al, 2005). From these studies it can be argued that quality of Jeans wear and fashion are the two main factors that can determines the success in the UK jeans market. Individuals are mainly attracted to purchase the UK jeans as a result of the current fashion and the quality of the jeans wear (Forney et al, 2005). It is also of interest to note that majority of individuals in UK jeans market agreed that the design of jeans in UK market is unique to any other design in other countries. De Vries (2008) supported this fact by suggesting in his research study that many of the customers of the UK jeans are from different countries around the world.
Research methodology refers to the processes and design used to collect data for a given research study. The process that is involved in the collection of data is an essential component of research work and is the fundamental basis for data analysis and interpretation (Healy & Perry, 2000). There are various research methodologies that can be used to collect and analyse the data collected for a research study. The research methods can be categorized under two main categories that include primary sources of data and secondary sources of data.
The primary sources of data include the collection of data from original sources. The collection of data from original sources can be obtained through the use of various techniques that include techniques such as interviews, questionnaires and observation. The data that is collected from primary sources are more reliable and accurate since they originate from original sources and are free from manipulation. Interviews as a primary method of collecting data involve administering questions to the study participants through oral or verbal means. In most cases interviews is conducted face to face with the study participants. The main advantage of interview is that it provides first hand information regarding a phenomenon under investigation and this can ensure that the data obtained is reliable (Healy & Perry, 2000). Observation on the other hand involves identification of a particular trend or behaviour of a given phenomenon over a period of time. This method of data collection can be misleading since it depends on the individual perception of the observed phenomenon. Questionnaire is the other method that is widely used as a primary source of data collection and involves the use of structured questions to interview the study participants. It is one of the cheapest methods that can is commonly used by a number of researchers.
Secondary sources of data are another method of data collection that is used to collect data from sources that are not original. It includes collection of data from sources such as books, case studies, journals, archives and other documents. Secondary sources of data in most cases do not provide accurate information since they are obtained from third parties rather than the original sources of data. The importance of the secondary sources of data is that they can be used to evaluate the effectiveness of the study in relation to other previous research studies.
After the collection of data the researchers can embark on the analysis of data so as to be able to obtain the objective of the research. Data analysis is important towards determining the findings of a research study. Data analysis methods can be categorised under two major categories that include qualitative and quantitative techniques (Kaplowitz et al, 2004). The quantitative techniques include the use of figures and arithmetical calculation to determine the main findings of the study. It involves the analysis of data using various statistical methods and includes representation of the findings through the use of figures and numbers (Healy & Perry, 2000). The qualitative technique of data analysis on the other hand involves the analysis of data using various descriptive methods. This in most case is used to analyse data that does not include figure and numbers. It only classifies data based on various categories or classes.
The research study used both qualitative research techniques and quantitative research techniques. This was to enable it come up with results that are reliable and valid. The survey questionnaire was used to collect primary information from Jeans consumers in UK. The survey questionnaire was aimed at investigating the attitudes of UK consumers towards Jeans and the factors that influence their purchasing decisions. The details of the conceptual framework of the study included the study hypotheses, the population size, sample selection criteria, the data collection technique, the design of the questionnaire and measurement.
The participants selected for the research study were composed of people aged between 18 and 55. Majority of the participants were however aged between 20 to 45 years. This is because most of the people who love Jeans wear are young people who are normally aged between 20 and 45 years old. This age group include people who values lifestyle and normally purchase clothing that reflects a certain trend that portrays current fashion. This age group is also considered for the study since they are in most cases financially stable hence able to purchase clothing on their own. Although the study considered both male and female participants, majority of the participants of the study were male. This is because most of the jeans are designed for male as opposed to female. It was also observed that male favoured jeans as opposed to female as indicated by the number of jeans outfits that were being manufactured for male. Most of the UK jeans manufacturing companies are also specialised in male clothing as opposed to female clothing. This makes it appropriate for research study to consider more male participants as opposed to female participants.
The following were the formulated hypothesis of the research study aimed at investigating various effects of the independent variables towards consumers buying behaviour of the jeans in UK
- H1: Age has a relation with UK jeans consumer purchasing behaviour
- H2: Education has a relation with UK jeans consumer purchasing behaviour
- H3: Occupation has an a relation with UK Jeans consumer purchasing behaviour
- H4: Income has a relation with UK jeans consumer purchasing behaviour
- H5: Product has a relation with UK Jeans consumer purchasing behaviour
- H6: Price has a relation with UK jeans consumer purchasing behaviour
- H7: Place has a relation with UK jeans consumer purchasing behaviour
- H8: Promotion has a relation with UK jeans consumer purchasing behaviour
The decision regarding the type of a research design can be determined by a number of factors that include research questions, the participants, the sample size, study location, cost of study and the information required (Blair, Czaja & Blair, 2013). Each of the designs style used in research gives different results and data hence emphasis should be put in choosing the research design and processes. Given the fact that this research study was aimed at investigating the factors that can influence consumer purchasing decision of Jeans in UK, the research study should included a sample of population from UK with various demographic characteristics.
The research study chose a research design that consisted of qualitative and quantitative research techniques so as to enable it come up with accurate and reliable data (Berg & Lune, 2004). Most of the study however focused on the qualitative research methods due to the descriptive nature of the research study that involves determination of factors that affects consumers purchasing decisions.
Sampling process is involved with the identification of the participants of a study. It ensures that appropriate participants are selected for the study (Murray, 2006). The sample consisted of people who provided the data and information that was required for the research study. A high percentage of population samples for a given study should be selected from the group that is targeted by the study. The sample population should reflect the entire population in order to avoid being biased. The selection of sample population is essential in research that is particularly concerned with business and management (Kotrlik & Higgins, 2001). For the research study, an element that was important when identifying the study participants was the demographic characteristics of individuals in UK. Appropriate method of selection for the study participants enabled the study to involve persons with diverse behaviours and characteristics. The sample size for the research study was composed of 250 participants selected from UK. Due to the time and cost constraints it was not possible for the study to interview and engage more than 250 participants.
The main data collection methods used in the research was mainly primary data collection methods and secondary data collection methods. The primary data collection method was used to collect data and information from their original sources through various means such as interviews and observation. Secondary data collection method on the other hand was used to collect data from secondary sources. This was achieved through collection of data from books, journals and other academic publications.
The primary sources of data are important in obtaining reliable information from original sources of information through the use of techniques that include observations and questionnaires (Jung, Bang & Young, 2005). The primary sources are also important as they ensure that the data obtained is accurate and effective since they are obtained directly from the study participants. The research study obtained primary data directly from the participants in UK that were selected for the study. The research study used two main primary data collection techniques that include observations and survey questionnaires.
Observation was used to monitor the participants selected for the study at various regions in UK. The main reason for observing the behaviour of participants of the study was to investigate the consumer’s purchasing pattern and trends as well as examine current lifestyle and fashion in the clothing industry. During the observation process detailed notes were taken on the behaviour of consumers and the availability of jeans sold and purchased by individuals in UK. The types of jeans preferred by individuals in UK were also observed during observation. A lot of effort was however put on the impact of independent variables towards the purchasing behaviours of consumers (Libarkin & Kurdziel, 2002). Observation also included other areas in the study such as the purchasing decision process of individuals. At the end of observation brief notes were made to summarize on the major areas that relates to the main research questions as well as the hypothesis formulated for the study.
Questionnaires were also used in the study as a means of getting primary information. The research questionnaires were designed in such a way that corresponds to the research questions. The survey questionnaires contained mainly open ended questions that are simple to understand. This allowed the study participants to provide independent feedbacks that are based on their understanding and experience. The language that was used in the survey questionnaires was simple to understand and this ensured that answered the questions asked appropriately. Those selected for the study among other professionals were given survey questionnaires. The survey questionnaires were delivered or mailed to the selected participants in UK. Feedbacks obtained from the survey questionnaires were then analyzed by grouping in different categories according to the response provided.
There are various tests that were used to investigate the significance of the results for the study. Since the data analysis involved comparison of more than two variables a number of statistical tests were used to determine the significance of the results. The analysis of the information and data obtained from the survey questionnaire was done using various statistical programs. Among the statistical programs that were used included SPSS and ANOVA.
There were a number of ethical issues that were considered while conducting the study. One of the important ethical issues that the study observed was confidentially of the information obtained from the participants (Wang & Waller, 2006). All information obtained from the participants was kept confidential. The researcher ensured that there was no divulgence of the details of the information from the study participants. The names and identity of the participants were kept confidential throughout the research process. The study was also based on voluntary basis. No participant was forced to take part in the study.
To analyse the participants’ demographic characteristics several factors were considered and include gender, age, education level and level of income.
|The Age Group in Years||Counts||Percentages|
|Between15 and 24 years||46||22%|
|Between 25 and 34 years||98||47%|
|Between 35 and 44 years||54||26%|
|Above 45 years old||10||5%|
According to table 4.1 above majority of the participants were aged between 25 years and 35 years old and represent 47 percent of the total number of the participants of the study. This was followed in the second place by individuals whose ages ranges from 35 years to 44 years old and represent 26 percent of the total number of the participants. Those aged between 15 years and 24 years were ranked third and represented 22 percent of the total number of the study participants. Individuals who were aged above 45 years old were the minority group and represented 5 percent of the total number of the study participants.
|Level of Education||Counts||Percentages|
|Secondary level education||6||3%|
According to table 4.2, individuals with Bachelors degree composed consisted of the majority of the participants at 82 percent of the study participants. This was followed in the second place with individuals with post graduate degrees consisting of 15 percent of the total participants. The least group of individuals were those who have completed secondary level educations and consisted of 3 percent of the study participants.
According to the table 4.3 above, private employees consist of the majority of the study participants and are made up of 54 percent of the total number of participants of the study. This was followed in the second place by entrepreneurs who were made up of 25 percent of the participants of the study. On the third place was college and school children who represented 10 percent of the total study participants. The least group according to the findings was the individuals in the informal employment. Public employees were ranked fourth according to the results and were made up of 6 percent of the total study participants. The individuals in the informal employment were made up of 3 percent of all the study participants.
|Earnings in UK pound/month||Counts||Percentages|
|200 UK pounds and Below||5||2%|
|201 – 400 UK pounds||48||23%|
|401 – 500 UK pounds||75||36%|
|more than 500 UK pounds||80||39%|
According to table 4.4 above, the largest group of the study participants were having a monthly earning of 500 UK pounds and more and represent 39 percent of the total study participants. This was followed in the second place by participants that have a monthly earning of between 401 and 500 UK pounds and represented 36 percent of the participants of the study. Those with income group of between 201 and 400 UK pounds were ranked third and consisted of 23 percent of the study participants. The last group with least income group were individuals earning below 200 UK pounds and represented 2 % of the participants.
|Why consumers purchase Jeans in UK||Count||Percentage|
|The product quality||36||17%|
|Any other reason||2||1%|
According to table 4.5 above, consumers taste was the main factor that have an impact on consumers purchasing decision at 44 percent of the study participants. This was followed by the lifestyle at 27 percent of the total study participants. The quality of the products was third and represented 17 percent of the study participants. Advertisement came on third position according to the results and represented 11 percent of the participants of the study. Other reasons which were specified by consumers were the least in terms of the ability to influence consumers purchasing decision of jeans in UK.
|Individuals influencing consumers Purchasing decision In UK||Counts||Percentage|
|Relatives and Families||16||8%|
Results represented in table4.6 shows the persons that influenced consumers buying decision of Jeans in UK with the largest group of respondents being colleagues with 65% or 136 people. The respondents in second largest group indicated that marketers influence their buying decision with 36 people or 18% of the participants. Famous personality was indicated by minority of the participants with a total number of 19 people or 9% of the participants. The last group indicated that relatives and families influence their buying decision with a total number of 16 people or 8%.
|The preferred country of origin for the jeans||Count||Percentage|
The results from the above given table shows the country of preference for buying jeans. UK was the leading with 116 participants representing 56% of the study participants. In the second place was Sweden with a total of 69 participants representing 33% of the participants of the study. USA was indicated as the third country with a total of 15 individual’s representing 7% of participants. Thailand was the country that was ranked last with 8 participants representing 4%.
|The favourite make of jeans||Count||Percentage|
According to the table above, majority of the participants indicated that they preferred jeans that are straight and represented 57% of the study participants. These was followed by individuals who indicated that they prefer slim jeans and accounted for 26% of the participants. Those whose favourite jeans were slim fit were third and accounted for 13 percent of the participants. The jeans style that was least preferred was the boot cut and represented 4 percent.
|Source to get information about Jeans in UK market||Count||Percentage|
According to the table above most of the information regarding jeans can be obtained from various lifestyle sites and accounts for 51 percent of the participants. This was followed by Social media at 29 percent of the participants of the study. On the third position was jeans publication that accounted for 12 percent of the study participants. The study participants indicated that information regarding jeans in UK can be least obtained from Television adverts as represented by 8 percent of the participants of the study.
|Main criterion of selecting and buying
Jeans In UK market
|The material used to make jeans||126||61%|
According to the results from the table above, majority of consumers considers the material used in making jeans as an important factors that influence their purchasing decision and it accounted for 61 percent of the total participants. In the second place was the design that accounted for 18 percent. Reputation of the jeans was third factor that consumers considers when making purchasing decision and this represented 15 percent of the study participants. Cost was in fourth position at 5 percent of the total participants followed by the appearance of the jeans at 1 percent.
|What makes individuals interested in Jeans||Counts||Percentage|
|Durability of jeans||53||26%|
According to the results from the above table, reputation of jeans was the leading factor that makes individuals interested in jeans in UK and accounted for 29 percent of all the study participants. This was followed by the durability of jeans in the second place and accounted for 26 percent of the participants of the study. The third element that makes individuals interested in jeans was the nature of jeans which accounted for 24 percent of the participants of the study. The last factor that was considered as least towards making individuals interested in jeans is the jeans style and accounted for 22 percent
|Number of pairs of jeans owned by consumers in UK||Count||percentage|
|More 4 pairs||19||9%|
The above table 4.12 show response of individuals regarding pairs of Jeans they own. Those who were having 1 pair of jeans were the majority with 93 participants or 45%. This was followed by those having 2 pairs of jeans with 59 individuals or 28%. The third was individuals with 3 pairs of jeans with 24 people or 11%. Individuals having more than 4 pairs of jeans followed with a count of 19 or 9%. The last group were individuals with less than 4 pairs of Jeans with 13 people or 6%.
|The number of times individuals buy jeans in UK per annum||Frequency||Percent|
|More than Three times||6||3%|
The table above indicates responses of the participants of the study regarding the number of times they buy jeans in UK per year. Majority of the participants that accounted 76% indicated that they buy 1 pair jeans yearly. In the second position were participants who indicated that they buy 2 pairs of jeans per year and accounted for 14 percent of the participants. Third were 13 individuals who indicated that the buy 3 pairs of jeans every year and accounted for 6% and. The least were people who buy jean more than three times each years and accounted for 3 percent.
|Willing to pay per time for buying jeans in UK market||Frequency||Percent|
|Less than 20 UK pounds||5||2.4|
|20 – 30 UK pounds||21||10.1|
|30 – 40 UK pound||11||5.3|
|50 – 100 UK pounds||133||63.9|
|100 – 200 UK pounds||38||18.3|
Findings in the above table show responses regarding the amount of money consumers are willing to pay for jeans. Majority of consumers who are composed of 64 percent of the study participants are able to pay an amount that ranges from 50-100 UK pounds. This was followed by the group that are able to pay for a price that ranges from 100-200 UK pounds representing 18% of the participants. Those who were able to pay a price that ranges from 20-30 UK pounds and accounting for 10 percent of the participants were ranked third. Minority of the respondents who were willing to pay 30-40 UK pounds and accounted for 5% of the total participants. Those who were able to pay a price that is less than 20 UK pounds were 5 people or 2.4 %.
|Factors influencing consumers decision to buy jeans||Mean||STD Deviation.||Implication||Ranki|
|Place factors||2.8||0.6||Neutrality influential||4|
|Promotion factors||2.9||0.6||Neutrality influential||3|
According to the above table the standard deviation are all less 30 percent of the mean which in this case is 1.5. This implies that the above data is concentrated around the average. From the overall findings, it can be concluded that the elements that influence consumers’ decision to purchase jeans are in the category of neutrality influential with an average of 3.2 and the standard deviation of 0.4. When considering each of the elements, the findings indicate that products factors have high degree of influential level as compared to all other factors. The second position was having place factors with an average of 3.5. The factors that were neutrality influential were promotion with an average of 2.9 and place factors with an average of 2.8.
|Product factors||Mean||STD Deviation||Interpretation|
|Similar to vintage jeans||3.7||0.9||Influential|
|Strength of jeans fabric||3.7||0.9||Influential|
|Ease of losing colour||3.8||0.8||Influential|
|The packaging||2.7||0.8||Neutrality influential|
From the table above it can be observed the values of all the standard deviations are below 1.5 and this is 30 percent of the average. This implies that data is concentrated around the averages. From the overall results, it is found that elements of product factors that influence consumer’s decisions to purchase jeans are under the influential category which has an average of 3.6 and its associated standard deviation is 0.5. From the findings, 6 elements are associated with high percentage of influential. The element with the highest influential degree is the design with an average of 4.1. This was followed by colour having an average of 3.9. Ease of losing colour was followed colour with an average 3.8. The other elements were strengths of the fabric with an average of 3.7, variety with an average of 3.3. Four elements were in the category of neutrality influential and were as follows. Styles with an average of 3.2, brands with an average of 3.1, packaging with an average of 2.8 and durability with an average of 3.6
According to the above 4.17, all the values of standard deviations are below 1.5 which is 30 percent of the mean value. This implies that the data is concentrated around the mean. From the findings it can be argued that the overall findings are that price factors have impacts on UK jeans consumer behaviours. The price factors under the category of influential with an average of 3.5 and the standard deviation of 0.6. The findings also indicate that two price elements are in the category of high influential. The price elements which are highly influential are affordable price with an average of 3.7 and flexible price with an average of 3.5. One price factor that is neutrality influential is the incentive with an average of 3.1.
|Easy to buy from businesses||3.2||0.5||Neutrality influential|
|Easy to purchase online||3.0||0.7||Neutrality influential|
|Well known sellers||2.4||0.9||Non influential|
|Store decoration is attractive||2.5||0.8||Non- influential|
According to the above table, the values of standard deviations for all the elements of place factors are below 1.5 percent which translates to 30 percent of the average. This implies that the data is concentrated around the mean. From the overall result it can be seen that elements of place factors that influence individual’s decision to purchase jeans in UK are under the category of neutrality-influential with an average of 2.8 and standard deviation of 0.6. The findings also indicate that two elements of place factors are having high degree of neutrality-influential with the price factor element that is highly influential being easy to buy jeans from businesses with an average of 3.2 and easy to buy the jeans online with an average of 3.0. In the non -influential category two place elements are identified attractiveness of store decoration having an average of 2.5 and sellers who are well known in the market having an average of 2.4.
|Promotion factors||Mean||STD Deviation.||Interpretations|
|Promotional strategies||3.0||0.8||Neutrality- influential|
|Endorsements by renown personalities||2.5||0.8||Non- influential|
From the above table, the standard deviations for all elements of promotion factors are below 1.5 which is 30% of the average. This implies that the data is concentrated around the average. From the overall result it can be noted that promotion factors that influence consumer’s decision to buy jeans in UK are in the category of neutrality- influential with an average of 2.9 and standard deviation of 0.5. The findings also indicate that one element having high level of influential was advertisements. Under the category of neutrality- influential there elements were found and include jeans exhibitions with an average of 3.1, incentives with an average of 3.0 promotional strategies with an average of 3.0. Under non- influential category two elements were found and include endorsements by renowned personalities with an average of 2.5 and marketers with an average of 2.4.
Hypothesis 1: Age of individuals has relation with the behaviour of UK jeans consumers.
The table below shows the findings of the test to investigate the association that exist between age and behaviour of UK jeans consumers. A sample that consisted of 208 individuals was used to conduct the test.
|UK jeans consumer behaviour||Chi-Square||df.||Sig.||Contingency (C)|
|Main reason for buying Jeans in UK||33.908||12||0.001*||0.374|
|Persons that influence buying decisions for jeans in UK||41.579||9||0.000*||0.408|
|Country of preference for the production of Jeans||30.151||9||0.000*||0.356|
|Jeans styles preferred most by individuals||51.562||9||0.000*||0.446|
|Source of getting information about Jeans in UK||45.612||9||0.000*||0.424|
|Criterion of selecting and buying Jeans in UK||30.484||12||0.002*||0.358|
|What makes individuals interested in UK jeans||26.056||9||0.002*||0.334|
The data illustrated in Table above shows the findings of Chi Square test to determine the relation that exists between age and UK jeans consumers. The findings show that the level of significance for all consumers in UK was less than 0.05. The levels of significance that were obtained from the findings are as follows. The main reason why consumers purchase jeans was at significance level of 0.001, the individuals that influenced buying decision at significance level of 0.000, country of preference for the jeans at significance level of 0.000, jeans styles preferred most (sig=0.000), source of getting information about the jeans at significance level of 0.000, the criteria of choosing and purchasing jeans at significance level of 0.002 and what makes individuals interested in buying jeans in UK at significance level of 0.002.
Since all these significance levels are <0.05, the hypothesis H1, is accepted. This implies that age has an association with UK jeans consumer behaviour. This results indicates that age of individuals influence decision of consumers regarding main reasons for buying jeans in UK, persons that influence jeans purchasing decision, the country preferred for the origin of jeans, favourite style of jeans, place of obtaining information about UK jeans, the criteria of purchasing jeans in UK and what makes individuals interested in Jeans in UK. The preferred jeans style was indicated as having the highest relation with age with the highest level of contingency at 0.5 and the level of significance that was less than 0.05.
Hypothesis 2: The individual’s level of education has relation with UK jeans consumer behaviour.
Table 4.21 shows the findings a hypothesis test to establish the association between the level of education and UK jeans consumer purchasing behaviour. A sample of 208 participants was used to conduct the hypothesis test. The level of significance was at 0.05 percent.
|UK jeans consumers purchasing behaviour||The Chi-Square test||Degree of freedom.||Significance level||The level of contingency (C)|
|The major reason why consumers buy Jeans in UK||17.377||8||0.026*||0.278|
|Persons that influenced buying decision for Jeans in UK||6.383||6||0.382||–|
|Country of preference for the jeans||13.667||6||0.034*||0.248|
|Jeans styles preferred most by individuals||29.089||6||0.000*||0.350|
|Source of getting information about jeans in UK||3.167||6||0.788||–|
|Criterion of buying Jeans in UK||22.104||8||0.005*||0.310|
|Factors that make consumers to be interested in purchasing Jeans in UK||11.0||6||0.086||–|
The table above shows the findings of the test of Chi-Square to determine the association that exists between education and UK jeans consumer buying behaviour. From the findings four issues of UK jeans consumer behaviour were found to be having a significance level less than 0.05. The issues that were having significance level < 0.05 include main reasons for buying jeans at a level of significance of 0.03 which is less than 0.05, the country of origin of jeans at a level of significance of 0.03 which is less than 0.05, jeans styles preferred most by individuals at a a level of significance of 0.000 which is less than 0.05 and criterion of selecting and buying jeans at a significance level of 0.01 which is less than 0.05.
Based on these findings, hypothesis1 is not rejected. This implies that the level of education has an association with UK jeans consumer buying behaviour with regards to four elements that include main reasons for buying Jeans, country of preference for the jeans, preferred jeans style and criterion of selecting and buying jeans. The issue with the highest relation was the jeans style preferred by the consumers with a contingency, C= 0.40 and the level of significance at 0.000.
Hypothesis 3: Occupation has relation with UK jeans consumer purchasing behaviour. The table below shows findings of a test aimed at determining the association that exists between occupation and UK jeans consumers purchasing behaviour.
|UK jeans consumer purchasing behaviour||Tests for Chi Square||Degree of freedom.||Significance level||The level of contingency|
|The major reason why consumers buy jeans in UK||46.608||16||0.000*||0.428|
|Persons that influence buying decision for Jeans||28.338||12||0.005*||0.346|
|Country of preference for production of jeans||19.031||12||0.088||–|
|Jeans styles preferred most by individuals||24.440||12||0.018*||0.324|
|Source of getting information about jeans in UK||19.156||12||0.085||–|
|Criterion of buying jeans in UK||60.366||16||0.000*||0.474|
|What makes individuals interested in jeans||24.160||12||0.019*||0.323|
Table 4.22 show the findings that are obtained from Chi Square test to determine the association that exists between the occupation and UK jeans consumer buying behaviour. The findings found that four issues of UK jeans consumer behaviour were having significant level < 0.05. The issues that were having significant level<0.05 include the major reason why consumers in UK purchase jeans at the level of significance of 0.000, individuals that can influence the purchasing decision at the level of significance of 0.01, the jeans style that is preferred most at significance level of 0.018, criterion for selecting and buying jeans at the level of significance of 0.000 and what makes individuals interested in jeans at the level of significance of 0.019.
Based on the findings of this hypothesis testing Hypothesis1 is not rejected. This implies that occupation has an association with UK jeans consumer behaviour. The results shows that the main UK jeans consumer behaviour that have an association with occupation include main reason for buying jeans, persons that influence buying decision, jeans styles preferred most, criterion for selecting and buying jeans and what makes individuals interested in jeans. The issue having strongest association with occupation was the criterion of selecting and buying with a contingency level of 0.474 and the level of significance of 0.000.
H4: Income has relation with UK jeans consumer purchasing behaviour
The table 4.23 show the findings of a test conducted to determine the association that exists between the level of income and UK jeans consumer purchasing behaviour. 7 issues of UK jeans consumer behaviour were investigated.
|The level of Earnings|
|UK jeans consumer behaviour||Chi-Square||DF||Level of significance.||The level of contingency|
|The major reason why consumers buying jeans in UK||34.358||12||0.001*||0.377|
|Pearson that influence buying decisions for Jeans in UK||23.160||9||0.006*||0.317|
|Country of preference for the production of Jeans||9.268||9||0.413||–|
|Jeans styles preferred most by individuals||42.151||9||0.000*||0.410|
|Source of getting information about jeans in UK||40.416||9||0.000*||0.403|
|Criterion of buying jeans in UK||41.337||12||0.000*||0.407|
|What makes individuals interested in jeans||29.367||9||0.001*||0.352|
The above table shows findings that were obtained from the test of chi square to investigate the association that exists between the income and UK jeans consumer purchasing behaviour. From the results six issues of UK jeans consumer behaviour are found to be at level of significance that is less than 0.05. This issues that had a significance level that is less than 0.05 are the major reason why consumers buy UK jeans at a level of significance of 0.001, individuals that influenced the purchasing decision of consumers at the level of significance of 0.006, jeans style favoured by most individuals at the level of significance of 0.000, source of getting information at the level of significance of 0.000, criterion of selecting and buying jeans at significance level of 0.000 and what makes individuals interested in jeans at significance level of 0.001.
Based on the findings 1 is not rejected. This implies that the level of income has an association with UK jeans consumer behaviour. The six issues that include main reason why consumers purchase jeans, individuals that can influence consumer purchasing decision, jeans style preferred most, place of getting information about jeans in UK, criteria for choosing and purchasing jeans and what makes consumers to become interested in jeans have an association with level of income. The issue with the strongest association with income according to the data was jeans style preferred most with a contingency, C= 0.410 and significance level of 0.000<0.05.
H5: product has relation with UK jeans consumer behaviour. The analysis to investigate that product factors have an association with UK jeans consumer purchasing decisions was done through consideration of 3 main elements of product factors that include the number of jeans the participants have, the frequency regarding the number of times per year the participants purchase jeans and the price that the participate is able to pay for jean when purchasing. This findings was tested at significance level of 0.05.
|UK jeans consumer behaviour||Correlation||Significance level|
|The number of jeans an individual have||0.144||0.038*|
|The frequency of purchasing jeans by an individual||0.06||0.39|
|The price an individual is able to pay||0.23||.001*|
The table above shows the findings of a test to establish the relation that exists between the various product factors and UK jeans consumer purchasing decisions. The hypothesis test used Pearson Correlation. There are two main factors that were established to be having the level of significance that is less than the values of 0.05. These factors included the number of jeans individual have at the level of significance of 0.038 which is less than 0.05 and the price that participants were able to pay at a level of significance of 0.01 which is less than 0.05.
Based on the Pearson correlation test, hypothesis 1 is not rejected. This implies that elements of products have a relationship with UK jeans consumer purchasing decisions. This test indicates that the two factors are related to the elements of product factors and include the number of jeans an individual has and the prices that individuals are able pay for the jeans. The factor with the strongest association was price the participants are able to pay for the jeans with correlation of 0.229 and the level of significance which is less than 0.05.
Hypotheses 6: Price has a relation with UK jeans consumer behaviour. To investigate the association that exists between price factors and UK jeans consumer purchasing decisions was done using three elements of products that include the number of jeans an individual has, the number of time and individual buy jeans each year and the amount of money that individual is able to pay for jeans.
|UK jeans consumer purchasing behaviour||P. Correlation||Significance|
|The number of UK jeans individual have||0.290||0.000*|
|The frequency of buying jeans buy individuals||0.190||0.006*|
|The price individuals are able pay for jeans||-0.09||0.188|
The above table show the findings of the correlation test done to determine the association between elements of price and UK jeans consumer purchasing decisions. The use of Pearson correlation test was used to determine the relation that exists between elements of price and UK jeans consumer purchasing decisions. The two main factors of the UK jeans consumers behaviour that include the number of jeans consumers have and the frequency of individuals for buying jeans were found to be at the level that is significance that is less than 0.05. The number of jeans was at the level significance of which is 0.000 which less than 0.05 and the frequency of purchasing jeans by the participants was at the level of significance of 0.006 which is less than 0.05.
Based on the test, hypothesis 1 is not rejected since the level of significance for two factors are less than the value of 0.05. This implies that the elements of price have a relation with UK jeans consumer purchasing decisions behaviour. The number of jeans and the frequency of individuals to buy jeans were found to be associated with place factors. The number of jeans individuals have was established to be having the strongest association with elements of place with correlation of 2.92 and significance of 000 which is less than 0.05.
Hypothesis 7: Place factors have relation with UK jeans consumer behaviour. To establish the relationship between place factors and UK jeans consumers, three issues were considered for the study and included the number of Jeans that consumer have, the frequency that individuals buys jeans and the amount participants are willing to pay for the jeans.
|UK jeans consumer purchasing decisions||P. Correlation||significance|
|Number of jeans individuals have||0.46||0.00*|
|Frequencies that individuals buy jeans||0.42||0.00*|
|Willing pay per time for buying jeans||0.22||0.00*|
The table above shows findings of obtained from test of correlation done to investigate the association that exists between elements of product and the UK jeans consumer purchasing decisions. The findings of the hypothesis indicate that all three factors considered were having level of significance that is less than 0.05. The total number of pairs of jeans participants have was at the level of significance of 0.00, the frequency that participants buy jeans was having at a level of significance of 0.00 and the price participants are able to pay for jeans was at a level of significance of 0.00.
Based on the findings, the hypothesis 1 should not be rejected since the level of significance for the place factors are less than 0.05. This implies that elements of place have an association with UK jeans consumer purchasing decisions.
Hypothesis 8: Promotional factors have a relation with UK jeans purchasing decision behaviour. To establish the association between promotional factors and UK jeans consumers’ purchasing decisions behaviour, three elements were considered for the research study and included the number of jeans participants have, the frequency that individual purchase jeans and that participants are able to pay for jeans.
|UK jeans consumer purchasing behaviour||P. Correlation||Significance|
|Number of jeans individual have||0.034||0.00*|
|Number of time participants buy jeans||0.29||0.00*|
|The amount of money individuals are able to pay for jeans||0.30||0.00*|
The table above shows the findings that were obtained from correlation test to investigate the relationship between elements of promotion and UK jeans consumer purchasing decision behaviour. The findings indicate that all the 3 factors were having the level of significance which is less than 0.05. All the issues have a uniform level of significance of 0.000 which is less than 0.05. For example, the number of jeans individuals has have a level of significance of 0.000, the frequency that individuals purchase jeans has a level of significance of 0.000 and the price that participants are able to pay had a significance level of 0.000.
Based on the findings of the test, Hypothesis 1 is not rejected since the level of significance for all the three factors are less than 0.05. This implies that elements of promotion have a relationship with UK jeans consumer purchasing behaviour. The issue with the highest relation was the number of pairs of jeans individual has with a level of significance of 0.000 and a correlation of 0.338.
This study was aimed at investigating the relationship between consumer demographics of the participants and the purchasing behaviours. The main demographic features of the consumer that were investigated included age of the participants, level of education, occupation and level of income. The results of the research study found that age was having an association of with UK jeans consumer behaviour. This is supported by a number of previous studies on consumer behaviours. William and Callman (1991) indicated that there is a relationship between age of individuals and purchasing decision of consumers. In their study, William and Callman, (1991) indicated age can determine the nature and type of a product that is purchased by consumers. This was also shown in the study as individuals in different age groups preferred various types of jeans wear. The study found that age has a relation with a number of consumer behaviours that include the main reasons for buying jeans, individuals that influence buying decisions of jeans, country of origin of jeans, favourite style of jeans, sources of obtaining knowledge about jeans in UK, main criterion of buying jeans and what makes individuals interested in jeans. These findings were also supported by Young et al (2010), in a study to investigate the impact of age in consumer behaviours. Young et al (2010) in his findings indicated that the consumers’ age is plays essential role towards determination of the type of clothing that is favoured by individuals.
The research study also found out that the level of education of consumers has a relation with UK jeans consumer purchasing behaviour. Individuals with different educational level were found to prefer certain types of the jeans. The study also found that the consumer education level is associated to the reasons that makes individuals to buy jeans, persons that influence purchasing decision of jeans, country of origin for the jeans, favourite styles of jeans, information sources of jeans, the criteria of making purchasing decision of jeans and what makes individuals interested in jeans. According to Gereffi & Memedovic 2003), education can be argued as responsible for making individuals to belong to a certain social class. This makes individuals with the same level of education to behave in similar ways when determining a product that best suits their needs (Chen & Dubinsky, 2003). Another research study also showed that individual preferences for products can be determined by the level of education (Bagozzi et al, 2003). Since this research study is supported by a number of previous studies, it can therefore be concluded that the findings regarding the association of education and consumer behaviour were accurate.
On the association of occupation and the consumer behaviours, the study found that there was a positive relation between occupation and consumer behaviours. The profession of consumers was established to be essential towards determination of various elements of consumer purchasing behaviour that include as reason why consumers purchase jeans, individuals that have influence on purchasing decision of jean, jeans styles preferred by individuals, criteria for choosing and purchsing jeans and what makes individuals interested in jeans and the main reason for buying jeans. Research has shown that occupation plays in important role towards consumers behaviours. Occupation was found to determine a number of factors that consumers consider when purchasing jeans. Given the fact that this finding is supported by a number of literatures and previous research studies, it can be argued that it is accurate and reliable.
The study to determine the association of income with UK jeans consumer behaviour indicated that income has a positive relation with UK jeans consumer behaviour. In fact it is argued that demand of products can be influenced by the level of income of consumers (Doran, 2009). As income level of consumers increases, more quantities of products will be demanded (Entwistle, 2000). This implies that income can determine the quantity of products purchased by individuals. Since this research study is also supported by the previous studies and literatures, it can be argued that the finding that income has an association with UK jeans consumer buying behaviour is true.
Four main elements of marketing mix were considered in the study and include product factors, place factors, price factors and promotional factors. The impacts and relation between the elements of marketing mix and UK jeans consumer behaviour was then investigated.
With respect to product factors it was found that product factors have an association with UK jeans consumer buying behaviour. The product factors can determine the behaviour of consumer include the nature of the product, durability, the make and quality (Doran, 2009). Research conducted to establish the association of product and the demand of consumers indicated that there exists a direct relationship between quantity purchased and the variety of product. Product factors such as durability and quality of products are significant in determining the consumer purchasing decisions and can determine the amount of products purchased and the demand for a good or service in the market (Entwistle, 2000). Goods and services that have high quality can ensure increased demand in a given market and this will make consumers purchase more of the products. The findings of the study that products have an association with UK jeans consumer behaviour is therefore true due to the fact that various research studies and literature reviews support these findings.
It can also be argued that price has a relationship with UK jeans consumer purchasing behaviours. According to Bhatnagar, Misra & Rao (2000), price is one of the major factors that can have an impact on the demand of product by consumers. In most cases consumer buying behaviour is based on the price of the products. Products with high prices will have low demand while products with low prices have high demand. The effects of price on demand of product can however be false under certain circumstances such as lack of close substitutes. The behaviour of UK jeans consumers with respect to price is supported by a number of theories and research studies. A research study conducted on the behaviour of consumer with respect to price indicated that price determines a number of behaviour such as the demand for products and the quantities purchased. This was also similar to the effect of price towards the UK jeans consumers. Hence the findings that price has an association with consumer behaviours is true.
Place factors were also found to be having an association with UK jeans consumer behaviour. Degeratu et al, (2000) indicated that place as an element of marketing mix can determine the purchasing decisions in a number of ways such as making the products accessible to the consumers. Due to the current advancement in the level in technology, it has been found that place factors can enhance the demand of products through the use of online marketing. This shows that place factors can be used to influence consumer behaviours. The location and origin of a product can also influence the purchasing decision of consumers by making them prefer or not to prefer a product (Rahman, 2012). In this research study, it was also found that the country of origin of jeans can influence consumer behaviour. Many of the respondents were in favour of goods that originate from a particular country. This makes place an important factor in determining the buying decision of consumers hence the research findings of the association between place factors and consumer demand is valid and reliable.
Promotional factors were also found to be having an association with UK jeans consumer behaviour. The promotion factors include various marketing strategies that organizations use to influence the demand of products. Some of the promotion factors that are used by majority of firms to enhance the demand of products by influencing the behaviour of consumers include advertisement and offering incentives. Bhatnagar, Misra & Rao (2000) found that promotion of products is significant in influencing consumer behaviours. Many companies marketing strategies are using promotional strategies to influence the consumer behaviours (Degeratu et al, 2000). This fact is also true as indicated by the study to investigate the behaviour of UK jeans consumers. Hence it can be argued that the finding that promotional factors have an association with UK jeans consumer behaviour is true.
Various factors were used to analyse consumer behaviours towards jeans in UK. The analysis with regards to the main reasons for buying jeans in UK, the largest respondents indicated that they purchase jeans due to personal preference (43.7%). The second largest group indicated that the main reason for buying jeans is due to fashion (26.9%). The third reason was due to quality of the jeans (17.3%).
In terms of persons that influence buying decision of jeans, the largest percentage of the respondents indicated that they are influenced by friends (65.4%), this was followed by respondents who indicated that they are influenced by salespersons (17.8%). In terms of the preference of jean based on the country of origin, the largest group preferred jeans from UK (55.8%), followed by a group that preferred jeans from Sweden (33.2%). With respect to the jeans styles, the jeans style preferred by most of the respondents was straight (56.7%), followed by jeans that are slim (26.0%). Responses regarding the sources of getting information of the jeans, majority of the respondents indicated that they get information about jeans from fashion website (51.4%), followed by respondents who indicated that they get information about the jeans from social networking (29.3%). With respect to the criterion of selecting and buying jeans, majority of the respondents indicated that the main criterion of selecting and buying jeans is based on raw materials (60.6%). This was followed by respondents who indicated that criterion for purchasing the jeans is based on style (17.8%).
Factors that make individuals interested in buying jeans were also analyzed. The largest group of respondents indicated that brand philosophy (29.3%) makes them interested in buying jeans. This was followed by respondents who indicated that they are interested in jeans due the quality of materials used (25.5%). In the analysis of the pairs of jeans that individuals have, majority of the respondents indicated that they have 1 pair of jeans (44.7%). This was followed by respondents who have 2 pairs (28.4%). In terms of the number of time individuals buy jeans per year, most of the respondents indicated that they buy jeans 1 time per year (76.4%). This was followed by those who buy the jeans 2 times per year (14.4%). With regards to the price consumers are willing to pay for the jeans, the largest group of respondents indicated that they are willing to pay are 50 – 1000 UK pounds (63.9%). This was followed in the second place by those willing to pay 1000 – 2000 UK pounds (18.3%).
Result of the study found product factors, price factors place factors and promotion factors are important towards influencing the behaviours of UK jeans consumers. Majority of the respondents indicated that product mix factors neutrality influential towards making individuals interested in jeans with a mean 3.19 and Standard Deviation 0.41. The results further show that there is a higher degree in influential level in product factors. This was followed by in the second place by price factors. Promotion and place factors were ranked third and fourth respectively with majority indicating that they are both neutrality influential.
Result from the analysis of product factors that make individuals interested in jeans shows that majority of the product factors are influential with a mean of 3.59 and Standard Deviation 0.45. From the result, 6 items were having higher degree in influential level. Craftsmanship, durability, colour, fading, thickness of jeans fabric were found to be influential. Product factors that were found to be neutrality influential include variety of styles, variety of brands and attractive packaging and technology and safety.
The results of price factors that make individuals interested in jeans found that price factors were influential with a mean of 3.45 and Standard Deviation 0.56. The result further shows that price factors that are strongly influential are reasonable price and price range. It also shows that cash item are neutrality influential.
Results of place factors that make individuals interested in jeans found that place factors are neutrality influential. Result further show that 2 items are having high degrees of neutrality influential level and includes easy purchasing from sellers and easy to purchase online from UK. And in non influential level 2 items were suggested by the respondents and included the attractiveness of store decoration and well known sellers.
Results of the promotion factors that make individuals interested in jeans found that promotion factors are neutrality influential with a mean 2.93 and Standard Deviation 0.54. Result further shows that 1 item with higher degree in influential level is advertising Media. In neutrality influential level 3 items that include jeans events, member discount and sales promotion were suggested by the respondents. And in non influential level the results found 2 items which are celebrity endorsements and sales person.
Hypotheses; 1 Age has an association with UK jeans consumer behaviour.
Summary of result: Accept H1 or age have relation positive to UK jeans consumer behaviour. This result indicates that age of individuals influence decision of consumers regarding main reasons for buying jeans, persons that influence buying decision of jeans, country of origin of jeans, favoured style of jeans, information sources about jeans, main criteria of purchasing jeans and what makes individuals interested in jeans. This was significant at or below the 0.05 level.
Hypotheses; 2 Education has an association with UK jeans consumer behaviour.
Summary of the result: Accept H1 or education have relation positive to UK jeans consumer buying behaviour. This implies that education has an association with UK jeans consumer behaviours with respect to four aspects that include main reasons for buying jeans, country of preference for the jeans, preferred jeans style and criterion of selecting and buying jeans. This was significant at or below the 0.05 level.
Hypotheses; 3 Occupation has an association with UK jeans consumer behaviour.
Summary of the result: Accept H1 or occupation have relation positive to UK jeans consumer behaviour. The results shows that the main UK jeans consumer behaviour that have an association with occupation include main reason for buying jeans, persons that influence buying decision, jeans styles preferred most, criterion for selecting and buying jeans and makes of interest of Jeans are main reason for buying jeans. This was significant at or below the 0.05 level.
Hypotheses; 4 Income has an association with UK jeans consumer behaviour.
Summary of the result: Accept H1 or income have relation positive to UK jeans consumer behaviour. The six issues that include main reason for buying jeans, persons that influence buying decision, jeans style preferred most, source of getting information, criterion of selecting and buying jeans and makes of interest of the jeans have an association with income.
H5: Product has a relationship with UK jeans consumer purchasing behaviour.
Summary of result: Accept H1 or product factors have relation positive to UK jeans consumer behaviour. The test indicates that two issues are significant related to the product factors and include the number of pairs of jeans individual has and the willing pay per time of buy.
H6: Price has a relation with UK jeans consumer purchasing behaviour.
Summary of the result: Accept H1 or place factors have relation positive to UK jeans consumer behaviour. The number of jeans and the frequency individuals purchase jeans were found to be associated with place factors.
H7: Place has a relation with UK jeans consumer purchasing behaviour.
Summary of the result: Accept H1 or place factors have relation positive to UK jeans consumer behaviour. This implies that number of pairs of jeans, the frequency individuals purchase jeans and price participants are able to pay for the jean are factors that influence consumer’s behaviours.
H8: Promotion has a relation with UK jeans consumer purchasing behaviour.
Summary of the result: Accept H1 or promotion factors have relation positive to UK jeans consumer behaviour. This indicates that the number pairs of jeans, number of time individuals buys jeans and willing price to pay per time for buying jeans are the factors that influenced buying decisions.
There are various recommendations that help enhance the accuracy of the future research studies on the topic. For any further studies on the topic, I will recommend that the number of participants should be increased to reflect the whole country. The study should include a number of towns and rural areas as opposed to concentrating on a single town few towns in UK. This will ensure that the study includes different participants with different backgrounds hence increases its effectiveness, reliability and accuracy (Dillman & Eltinge, 2002). Including individuals from the entire UK will also facilitate the identification of some of the demographic factors that are important in determining UK consumer’s purchasing behaviour. This can also ensure that the population sample for the study accurately reflects the real population size in UK jeans market and this will make the study to be reliable and valid.
The time allocated for the study should also be increased significantly to allow for gathering of adequate information from the participants of the study (Connell Lynch & Waring, 2001).The study was having inadequate time hence it was practically impossible to conduct the study effectively. Inadequate time for the study can lead to the unreliable data and wrong information as the research is conducted in a hurry. This can reduce the quality of the research study and make it irrelevant in addressing the research questions. This can also interfere negatively with the results of the study. It is therefore recommended that the study takes adequate time so as to allow the researchers to collect full and detailed information that can allow the results to be reliable and valid (Murray, 2006). The future research study should take at least two years so as to enable the researchers to collect data from participants selected from various parts of the country.
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Part 1 Personal data (Please check only one response)
- Indicate the category of your age?
- Indicate the highest education level that you have attained?
- High School
- Bachelors Degree
- Postgraduate degree
- What is your occupation?
- College/school student
- Privately Employed
- Government Employee
- Others (Please specify) _____________
- What is your average income? (Per month)
- Less than 200 UK Pounds
- 201-400 UK Pounds
- 401-500 UK Pounds
- 500 UK Pounds or more
Part 2 UK jeans consumer buying behaviour (Please check only one response)
- What makes you purchase jeans?
- taste and preference
- The durability of jeans
- Others (Please Specify)____________
- Apart from you, who are the persons that influenced your jeans buying decision?
- Members of the Family
- Renowned personalities
- Apart from UK, do you prefer reproduction or craftsmanship of jeans from any of following countries?
- Which jeans styles do you prefer most?
- Narrow and fit
- Long and straight
- Boot cut
- Where do you get the information about jeans?
- TV and Radio Adverts
- Online sites
- Social Media
- What is your main criterion of buying jeans?
- Material used
- What makes you interested in jeans?
- Indicate the number of jeans you have?
- Indicate how frequent you purchase jeans per year?
- Indicate your budget for jeans at any buying time?
Part 3 Marketing mix
Indicate the degree of influence based on the following opinion statements regarding the purchase of jeans.
|Influential strongly||Influential||Neutrally Influential||Non-Influential||Strongly Non-Influential|
|1. Variety of jeans types|
|2. Similar to vintage jeans|
|3. Variety of styles|
|4.Variety of jeans thickness|
|8. Variety of brands|
|Influential strongly||Influential||Neutrally Influential||Non-Influential||Strongly Non-Influential|
|2. Price range|
|3. Cash discount|
|Influential strongly||Influential||Neutrally Influential||Non-Influential||Strongly Non-Influential|
|1. Accessibility of the product|
|2Availablity online from UK||
|3. Reputable sellers|
|4. Appearance of stores|
|Influential strongly||Influential||Neutrally Influential||Non-Influential||Strongly Non-Influential|
|1. Magazines and Look books/ Celebrities|
|2. jeans events|
|3. Sale Promotion|
|4. Sale person|
|5. Member discount|