Module 05 Course Project (Eczema) – Outline

  • I.                   Introduction

 

    1. Definition –  a general term for many types of skin inflammation that is often with associated with dry, flaky, irritated, red skin that includes blisters and/or infections.
      1. comes from the Greek words that mean to ‘boil over’
    2. Epidemiology– the one of the most common dermatological diseases and the number of cases has risen markedly over recent years.
      1.                                                               i.      can occur at any age
      2.                                                             ii.      more prevalent in children under 11 and adults over 60 years of age
      3.                                                           iii.      It is estimated that eczema affects 20% of the general population
    3. Affliction– it is physically and emotionally exhausting
      1. Spontaneous painful flare-ups (stress has to be avoided!)
      2. Bloody discharge, lesions, and irritation
      3. Embarrassing skin you constantly want to hide
      4.  Change in diet and lifestyle
  • Causesare usually both a mixture of inheritance and environmental factors that can act together at different times
    1. Genes
      1. Defects in epithelial barrier function
      2. Mutations in the filaggrin
      3. Human Epidermal Differentiation Complex (EDC) of chromosomes
    2. Environment
      1. An allergic reaction
      2. Stress and Hormones
      3. Location (climate, vegetation, topography)
  • Different Sub-groupsThe different types of eczema are associated with morphology (shape, color, structure and pattern).
    1. Atopic
      1. same as atopic dermatitis
      2. a chronic inflammatory itchy skin condition
      3. eczema usually starts in the first months of life and affects both sexes equally.
      4. Has the potential to harm a child’s emotional and social development
    2. Discoid

 

i.      appears as multiple disc shaped

ii.      thick itchy plaques and often crusted on a background of normal skin

iii.      Most commonly appear on the legs, but may also do so on the arms, trunk, hands or feet

iv.      Rare in children, usually appears in older males (60-70 of age)

  1. Seborrhoeic

i.      appears in the nappy area and the scalp in infants

ii.      appears in ears and eyebrows, and over the sternum and between the shoulder blades

iii.      presents as a greasy, red scaly rash

iv.      liked to Pityrosporan ovale, a common yeast infection often seen on the skin

  1. Testing
    1. Physical Exam

i.    Based on the appearance of the skin

  1.                                         ii.    Personal/family history
  2. Allergy-skin testing

i.    Allergy symptoms

ii.    Skin rashes that are located in certain areas of the body

  1. Skin biopsy

i.    To confirm the diagnostics

ii.    Rule out other causes for dry, itchy skin

  1. Treatment
    1. Emollients

i.    first-line treatments for mild-to-moderate eczema

ii.    reduce itching and irritation

iii.     rehydrate skin

iv.    protect against further drying

  1. Topical corticosteroids

i.    frequently used in the treatment of eczema

ii.    affect the activity of the immune system to reduce inflammation in the skin

i.    They have anti-inflammatory, immunosuppressive and anti-mitotic effects

  1. UVB phototherapy

i.    Within the dermatologist’s domain

ii.    refers to the use of ultraviolet light to treat the skin

iii.    can be effective if primary care treatments fail

  1. Prevention

i.    Doctors need to inform the patients of the causes of disorder, and those risks must be avoided at all times (work, sports, clothing, foods)

ii.    Nurse needs to demonstrate patients on how to manage the disorder, in order to help them help themselves when a flare-up begins.

 

  1. VI.           Conclusion
    1. Eczema is a common condition, comes in different forms and can affect any age group
    2. Can place great physical and emotional burdens on the individual
    3. Treatment options are available to help increase the quality of life
    4. A growing range of treatments and regimens can help control more cases.
    5. Patients need to learn how to manage their condition and control their symptoms.

 

References

Atopic Dermatitis – Symptoms, Diagnosis, Treatment of Atopic Dermatitis – NY Times Health Information. (n.d.). Health News – The New York Times. Retrieved February 10, 2013, from http://health.nytimes.com/health/guides/disease/eczema/overview.html

 

Greener, M. (2009). Eczema: what lies beneath? Nurse Prescribing7(10), 440-444.

 

Peate, P. (2011). Eczema: causes, symptoms and treatment in the community. British Journal of Community Nursing16(7), 324-31.

 

Research Paper. (n.d.). Carmel Clay Schools. Retrieved February 10, 2013, from

 

Sohn, A., Frankel, A., Patel, R. V., & Goldenberg, G. (2011). The Mount Sinai Journal Of Medicine78(5), 730-739.

 

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