The center of the Earth

The center of the Earth

The inner part of the universe is composed of three layers, two of which are solid and one liquid layer. The deepest layer is a solid iron ball of about 1500 miles in diameter. Although the core of the earth is hot, the pressures are high that the iron cannot melt. This confirms that the inside of the earth is made of much heavier substance.  Information on the interior of the earth comes from the study of the earthquake waves travelling through the earth, together with the laboratory tests on exterior minerals and rocks under high temperatures and pressure (Stober & Bucher, 2013). In addition, important information on the inner part of the earth comes from the studies on surface rocks and earths motion within the solar system. More information could be available through the study of magnetic fields and the heat originating from the inside of the earth.

The earth consists of crust, mantle and core, each separated into two parts. The central part and blanket are equal in thickness, although the core forms 15 percent of the earth’s dimensions whereas the layer covers 84 percent (Fowler, 2012). The outer layer adds up to form the remaining 1 percent. The studies on the layers and chemical composition of the earth are improving steadily through the research on experimental rocks at high pressure. The crust is thinner under the oceans that under the continents. Mohorovicic discontinuity forms the border line between the outer layer and the mantle. This boundary is detected by the sharp augment downwards in the momentum of earthquakes.




The interior layers of the earth

The Crust

 The earth’s crust consists of the thin oceanic current underlying the ocean basins and the thicker continental crust underlying the continents. The thin oceanic crust consists of basalt and thicker continental crust is made of granite. The geology of the crust has been studied extensively; therefore, much information about its configuration and composition is critical. Inside the crust, obscure patterns form when the rocks debris deposit in layers through geological processes. For example, the upsurge and incursion of lava, attrition and the consolidation of the rock particles over time has led to the current structure of the earth. The solidification and re-crystallization of rocks has led to the formation and crystallization of permeable rock. The process of plate tectonics containing the grouping of continents and water base has moved around the globe’s facade through much of the geological time. The collision of the plate has led to the formation of mountains and concentration of volcanoes. The 12 plates holding the continents include the outer layer and part of the mantle, and as the plates move over time, they yield the upper mantle zone at slow rates (Nolet, 2011).

The Mantle

The mantle has two layers, the lower and the upper mantle.  It has mainly olivine rick rock, with varying temperature at different depths. The temperature is lowest just beneath the crust, and then progresses gradually with depth. The process of steady increase in temperature is known as geothermal gradient. The upper mantle contains the tectonic plates. It between 100 to 200 kilometers below the globe’s surface and the heat of the rocks is near the melting point. The molten rocks erupting through the process of volcanism originate from the mantle (Fowler, 2012). The mantle has slightly lower earthquake velocity, with the assumption that the tectonic plates ride. The chemical composition of the minerals at the upper mantle has high force and heat. The lower layer is made up of simple chemicals components such as iron and magnesium silicate minerals. The minerals change gradually with the increase in profundity to very impenetrable forms. As the depth progresses to the core, it is marked by a significant decrease in earthquake velocity by approximately 30 percent and consequent increase in density by approximately 30 percent (Fowler, 2012). The rocks at the lower mantle are soft, therefore, become viscous when subjected to high temperature and force.

The Core

The central part of the globe was the first element, discovered in 1906, by Oldham, from the studies of the earthquake records (Fowler, 2012). It facilitated to give details to Newton’s calculation of the earth’s compactness. The external core is presumably in liquid form because it does not convey the shear waves, and it has declined compression velocity.  The temperature at the outer core is high to melt the iron nickel alloy. The inner core is presumably in a solid form, although the temperatures are high. This could be attributed to the weight of the underlying rocks, which exert pressure to crowd the atoms of the rocks together. It transmits the shear waves. The globe’s core is composed of iron and Nickel alloy, based on the calculation of its density. The core of the globe is the source of the internal heat, because of the radioactive materials that release heat during the process of decay.


The center of the globe is layered in a spherical manner, with each layer exhibiting distinct chemical or rheological properties. The crust is made of high silicate, solid layer, while the mantle is made up of a highly viscous material. The understanding of the globe’s inner structure is based on the topography and observation of rock samples, brought to the surface through volcanic activities. The analysis of the seismic waves passing through the earth is also significant in gathering information on the character of the inner parts of the globe. The knowledge of the earths inside is essential in the understanding of plate tectonic.




Stober, I., & Bucher, K. (2013). Thermal Structure of the Earth. In Geothermal Energy (pp. 1-13). Springer Berlin Heidelberg.

Fowler, C. M. R. (2012). The Earth: Core, mantle and crust. Regional Geology and Tectonics: Principles of Geologic Analysis1, 19.

Nolet, G. (2011). Earth’s Structure, Upper Mantle. In Encyclopedia of Solid Earth Geophysics (pp. 159-165). Springer Netherlands.


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